Psychosis

Many distinguished artists, musicians, and writers were diagnosed with some kinds of mental illnesses, Adolf Wolfli, Lord Byron, Virginia Woolf, Edvard Munch, Victor Hugo, and Jackson Pollock, to name but a very few. Robert Schumann, who is one of the most productive Romantic composers of the nineteenth century, ended his life in an insane asylum. The world-renowned impressionist artist, Vincent Willem van Gogh, suffered recurrent bouts of mental illness during the final two years of his life,...

Cocaine and Crack Cocaine

Cocaine is a concentrated form of coca leaves which is usually snorted and absorbed quickly. It creates a very intense high. Eventually cocaine addiction can lead to severe problems in the nasal cavity, along with paranoia and insomnia. Sigmund Freud wrote a paper called Uber Cola in which he experimented on himself a dozen times and noted the 'exhilaration and lasting euphoria.' He later changed his mind about benefits when a friend died from an overdose. Other prominent creative individuals...

The Super Implicate Order

Bohm was also extending his notion of the Implicate Order. Aspects of the Implicate unfold and manifest as the Explicate. But in this sense there was nothing new emerging, since all was already copresent in the Implicate, and so Bohm proposed another level - the Super Implicate. When the Implicate manifests an aspect of itself into the Explicate this manifestation is observed by the Super Implicate, which then feeds back into the Implicate. By way of an illustration Bohm pointed to a video...

Do Computers Enhance Creativity or Destroy Creativity

Creativity might be viewed as any process which results in a novel and useful product. People use computers for creative tasks they flesh out ideas for text, graphics, engineering solutions, etc. Computer programming is an especially creative activity, but few tools for programming aid creativity. According to Selker, computers can be designed to foster creativity as well. In the opinion of Mills computers have traditionally been used as tools to raise efficiency. To realize the true value of...

Creativity Meditation and Hypnosis

There are psychophysiological markers for hypnagogia, hypno-pompia, and napping. In the case of meditation, a number of studies have identified markers such as reduced respiration rate and volume of air breathed, reduced oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide elimination, and reduced blood lactate. In these studies, heart rate and the skin's electrical conductance decreased, but the frequency of alpha (and sometimes that of theta) brain waves increased. All of this suggests reduced energy...

Imagination and Autism Spectrum Disorders

Disturbances of imagination are associated with many types of mental illness and neurological disorders. Our capacity to imagine alternatives to our current experience can lead to the development of worldviews that are not shared with other people and difficulties in distinguishing fantasy from reality (e.g., the delusions of a person with paranoid schizophrenia). Sometimes the association between mental illness and imagination is framed as enhanced creativity - interpreted by some as the...

Systematizing the Consensual Assessment Technique in Creativity Research

The consensual assessment of creativity was formalized and systematized by Amabile's work in the social psychology of creativity, beginning in the late 1970s. When this program of investigation was begun over 30 years ago, existing creativity measurement tools, including available subjective assessment methodologies, could not meet the unique research requirements of investigators interested in the social psychology of creativity. The majority of available assessment techniques resembled...

Affectrelated traits and creativity The case of trait emotional intelligence and divergent thinking

The literature on links between affect-related traits and creativity is informed mainly by empirical work based on trait emotional intelligence and divergent thinking. The studies conducted so far have generally found no overall correlation between global trait emotional intelligence scores and divergent thinking. However, this null correlation may conceal different relationships between divergent thinking and the separate factors underlying global trait emotional intelligence. In a recent...

The Changing Understanding of Creativity

In his Ion, Plato discussed the contribution of creative artists to society, albeit in a rather sarcastic and uncomplimentary way. Over the centuries since, painters, sculptors, poets, musicians, writers, actors, and other workers in the creative arts, as well as critics and scholars, have frequently discussed creativity from an esthetic point of view, mainly focusing on works of art. The Chinese Emperor, Han Wudi, who reigned until 87 BCE, emphasized a different aspect. He saw innovative...

Henri MarieRaymond de Toulouse LautrecMonfa 18641901

Oil paintings Le Cirque Fernando (1888), A la Mie (1891) Dance at the Moulin Rouge (1894) Posters Le Chat Noir, Le Moulin Rouge, Aristide Bruant, La Goulu and Valentin le Desosse Lithographs Elles D Pariser, Concordia University, Montreal, CA 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article is reproduced from the previous edition, volume 2, pp. 665-673, 1999, Elsevier Inc. HENRI DE TOULOUSE LAUTREC's paintings and prints are linked in spirit and draughtsmanship to the work of artists such...

Major Acting Theories of Today

Konstantin Stanislavski's System remained dynamic throughout his life due to social and political constraints and his own personal search for creative clarity. Living in Russia he experienced European and Asian artistic traditions and saw popular shifts in theatre from nineteenth century histrionics to the realism and modernism of the twentieth century. He strove to codify the experience of creativity on stage into a common system which he himself warned never to use as a philosophy but merely...

The Question Is Novelty Undermining Creativity

The kind of creativity at stake here is the influential sort, the novelty that expands a domain. This has always been rare, but the pressure to be 'new' has long been escalating, and in ways that work against the development of domain-changing creativity. The 'anxiety of influence,' to use Harold Bloom's prescient term, is omnipresent in art and in science. We open a first book of poems, Bloom wrote, expecting a 'distinctive voice,' and if disappointed, close it. We enter an art gallery,...

Cognitive Theories of Creativity

The other group of theories that includes intellectual abilities as a key component is the set of cognitive theories of creativity. Guilford, as discussed earlier, pioneered these ideas, and his convergent versus divergent thinking dichotomy is still a key idea in creativity. Even before Guilford, however, Wallas proposed a model of the cognitive creative process. According to his five-stage model, you first use preparation to begin work on a problem. Next, there is incubation, in which you may...

Author of To the Lighthouse The Waves and A Room of Ones

M F Ippolito, Bowling Green, OH, USA 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article is reproduced from the previous edition, volume 2, pp. 709-715, 1999, Elsevier Inc. English novelist VIRGINIA WOOLF is acclaimed for her innovations in novelistic structure and for a writing style perhaps best represented by her fifth novel, To the Lighthouse (1927). Although Woolf considered her nonfiction efforts secondary to her novels, she was a productive and influential essayist. Her best-known...

Facilitating Pretend Play and Creativity

One way to foster creativity in children is through facilitation of pretend play ability. There have been efforts to improve children's play skills. Many of these play training studies have been in an academic context rather than a therapeutic context. Smilansky's study in 1968 was one of the first to demonstrate that teachers could teach play skills. She worked with kindergarten children from low SES backgrounds in Israel for 90 minutes a day, five days a week, for nine weeks. The children who...

Compensatory advantage

The existence of a genes for a medical problem - If present at an attenuated level - can carry an advantage and a low-enough cost - benefit ratio that there may be adaptive, and even evolutionary, advantages overall in a population. The example of this in sickle cell anemia, both in the disease state (with two copies of a mutant gene) and the carrier state (one copy), was mentioned earlier. The more numerous carriers suffer relatively little but obtain a compensatory advantage resistance to...

Artists with Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration, which is a disease of the retina, is one of the most common causes of vision loss in older adults. In this illness, the macula, which is the central part of the retina, becomes damaged leaving the affected individual with only peripheral vision. Although this illness usually found in individuals aged over 55, Edgar Degas (French 1834-1917) had his first symptom at age 36. The condition, which began in his right eye, eventually affected his left eye as well. Even without...

Schizophrenia and Schizotypy

Given the problems inherent in studying creativity amongst schizophrenics on medication, it is natural to consider other phenomena related to the pathology, that are more amenable to experimental research. This is the same line of thinking that one finds in research on normative psychopathy (i.e., 'normal' individuals who might be predisposed to psychopathic behavior, without actually being characterized as being psychopaths). So-called 'psychosis-prone' individuals (i.e., those individuals who...

Positive and negative affect

Motivational and affective factors, for example willingness to go out on a limb and take risks, self confidence, and energy, are important components of the creative process. However, a creative product is more usually viewed as coming from thinking or perhaps (in such cases as 'unconscious' or 'automatic' writing or painting) from behavior alone. While the focus of this entry is on affect, much research has focused on specific aspects of cognition and their relationships to creative...

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Daguerre, Louis-Jacques Mande 2 157-158 acting relationship 1 344 African theater 2 469 ballet see ballet dancing choreography 1 344-345 classical 1 343 creation 1 344-345 definition 1 343 desire for 1 349 as ephemeral art form 1 349 expressive arts therapy 1 500 flow in 1 524 forms of 1 344 changes over time 1 344 healing practices and 1 345 injuries 1 347-348 modern 1 344 neurobiology and 1 346-347 origin 1 344 prerequisite for flow 1 524 primary imagination and 1 345, 1 346 research 1...

Theories of Intelligence which Encompass Creativity

Guilford placed creativity within the context of an intellectual framework. In doing so, he was the first of many to consider creativity to be part of intelligence. Some theories of intelligence include creativity as a subcomponent. Undoubtedly, the theory of intelligence that is most often applied to IQ tests is the CHC (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) theory, a combination of two earlier theories. The Cattell-Horn theory initially proposed two types of intelligence, crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf). Gc...

Traditional and Untraditional Views

Early definitions usually equated giftedness with intelligence as measured by standardized intelligence tests. Therefore, gifted-ness was not only assessed by, but also defined by, the intelligence quotient (IQ). Lewis Terman's interpretation and use of Alfred Binet's intelligence test in the United States in the 1920s enabled the study and classification of individuals according to a measure of mental ability. Further development of intelligence tests that allowed for group administration and...

Dysgraphia and the Split Brain

Dysgraphia - handwriting disability, can come about, as we have seen, as a result of living in a largely preliterate culture. It can also come about as a developmental disorder due to genetic accident, injury, or illness. Dysgraphia seldom occurs in isolation, as it is often concomitant with related disorders such as alexithymia, dyslexia, dyscalculia, parkinsonism, hepatic encephalopathy, aphasia, attention-deficit disorder, and various emotional pathologies. Still-developing dysgraphic...

Cultural Diversity in Entrepreneurial Teams

Diversity in teams helps foster the creative expansion of ideas. Many studies suggest that creativity in teams may be influenced by the type of diversity present among team members. Diversity refers to individual differences on any attribute that causes us to view another person as different from self. There are many types of diversity that group members bring into their work groups. Demographic diversity or social categorization diversity refers to differences in group members in terms of...

Schizophrenia and Creativity

Heinz Werner (1890-1964) marked one dimension of development as that moving from a syncretic level to a discrete one, that is, from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation. Syncretic cognition entails a dedifferentiation of perceptual qualities in subjective experience, the most predominant example being synesthesia. But syncretic cognition, according to Werner, also refers to the lack of differentiation between what one dreams and what...

Schizophrenia and Schizophrenic Thinking

Readers of this article - especially those interested in their own creativity - face the uncomfortable prospect that creativity is intricately related to psychopathology. This includes the potential relationship of mathematical creativity with autism, artistic creativity with bipolar disorder, and general creativity with schizophrenia. Such a notion appears in various guises in both the literature and the media the 'madman in the attic,' the 'mad genius,' the 'sensitive artist,' the 'troubled...

Group Idea Generation

Creativity requires that individuals take new or unusual approaches to problems. This is sometimes called a divergent style in which there is an emphasis on unique or atypical responses. This may require a somewhat random association of different domains, sets of knowledge, or ideas. Group interaction should be ideal for such a process. One can bring together people with diverse knowledge and skills and allow them to combine these in unique ways. Certainly such a group has a greater potential...

Dialectical Thinking and Postformal Thinking

Riegel (1973) also emphasized the role of disequilibrium (contradiction and change) in the course of cognitive development. He argued that 'primitive' dialectic is used by people at different developmental stages, but that it is the conscious and systematic use of the dialectic that marks the final stage of cognitive development. A similar cultural argument is made by Paletz and Peng (2009 140) with respect to a 'na ve dialecticism' which is defined in the earlier work of 1999 by Peng and...

Characteristics of Entrepreneurs

An entrepreneur is a person who becomes immersed in an innovative entrepreneurial endeavor, defined as the process of starting a new business, organization, product, or service that fulfills a vision. In this article, we consider only entrepreneurs who innovate in some way. To recognize the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs, we first need to understand the cycle that most entrepreneurs go through and the challenges encountered at each stage of the process. The entrepreneurial process...

Association Studies from Molecular Genetics

The number of genetic association studies on creativity is very small until now. The main reason for this is that creativity is a construct that is mainly studied by psychologists and psychologists normally are not familiar with molecular genetic techniques. However, if psychologists do not want to learn these techniques by themselves, they at least have the possibility to analyze their samples in cooperation with scientists from other disciplines who run a genetic laboratory. A similar...

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3P's approach to creativity 1 358, 2 345 4P's approach to creativity see Four P's approach to creativity 5P's approach to creativity 1 536, 2 416 6P's approach to creativity 2 473, 2 474 Pablo Records 1 517 paganism 1 608 fundamentalist religion vs, Greeks 1 609-610 medieval Europe 1 609-610 reintroduction, in Renaissance 1 612 painters control, music role (audioanalgesia) 2 171-172 see also individual painters painting gender differences 1 556 Impressionist, in America 1 178-179 improvisation...

Creativity in Entrepreneurial Teams

Although the image of the lone entrepreneur is a popular one, most entrepreneurial activities involve small teams. Teams are typically small groups of individuals with differing but complementary skill sets who depend on each other for the successful attainment of the team goal. These may be the team of founding members or teams formed for specific aspects of entrepreneurship such as marketing. Some researchers claim that such teamwork enhances the success of entrepreneurial activities. This is...

Exceptions to the General Trends

The examples of Borodin, Morris, and Temple Black lead to the conclusion that exceptions exist to the general lifetime productivity trends. As the Introduction suggests, such exceptions are fairly numerous and provide interesting insights into the trans-disciplinary factors at work in creative lives. The most notable of these exceptions are prodigies, late-bloomers, 'persisters,' polymaths, and field-changers. Prodigies are people who exhibit an unusually developed ability at an unusually young...

Scientific Framework for Understanding Creativity Exercises

Games and exercises for enhancing creativity can be organized into 12 categories suggested by Generativity Theory, a formal, predictive theory of the creative process first proposed by Robert Epstein in the 1980s. According to this theory, which has been validated in both laboratory and applied settings, the behavior we call creative occurs as previously established behaviors (which also includes thoughts and ideas) become interconnected in various ways to produce blends and new sequences. The...

Relevant Websites

Psychological Association Division 10. - Creativity Research Journal. See also Bipolar Mood Disorders Chaos Theory and Creativity Cognitive Style and Creativity Deviance Divergent Thinking Dreams and Creativity Eminence Emotion Affect Everyday Creativity Janusian, Homospatial and Sepconic Articulation Processes Mad Genius Controversy Multiple Intelligences Schizophrenia and Psychosis Sociobiology Substance Abuse and Creativity Suicide Therapy and Counseling (Creative Process in) Writing and...

Further Reading

Barron F (1961) Creative vision and expression in writing and painting. In The Creative Person, pp. II-1-II-19. Berkeley University of California. Cassandro VJ (1998) Explaining premature mortality across fields of creative endeavor. Journal of Personality 66(5) 805-829. GoertzelMG, GoertzelV, and Goertzel TG (1978) Three Hundred Eminent Personalities. San Francisco Jossey-Bass. Kaufman JC (2002) I bask in dreams of suicide Mentalillness, poetry, and women. Review of General Psychology 6(3)...

Computers and Creativity

According to Virtual Music Composer V3.0, the relationship between computers and creativity is a never ending story. And it will remain the same things can always be better. And, we continue work on improving operating efficiency through new algorithms. Essentially, there are two issues here. First, we need to define what creativity actually is. Second, we need to address whether this process can be done by a computer, or whether it is an inherently human ability. I have sidestepped this second...

Learning Difficulties Dyslexia Attention Deficit Disorder and Prosopagnosia

Learning disorders have also turned individuals to art. They are widespread, affecting about 10-30 of the population with dyslexia being the most prevalent. Dyslexia, which is usually inherited, is noted by problems with reading, spelling, and writing. Now a recognized learning problem, people with dyslexia in the past were often considered to be less intelligent even though some of them like Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 14521519) were geniuses. People with dyslexia often have difficulty...

Research and Scholarship on Adaptation and Creativity Style Expertise and Chance

Creative adaptation and adaptiveness are related to cognitive style, development of expertise, and chance factors, discussed in this order. The research literature connecting adaptation and creativity is meager with the exception of the work of Michael Kirton and colleagues. Kirton hypothesized that there are two distinct types of creative people. He developed a scale to distinguish cognitive style preference, the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory (KAI). The pattern emerging from this...

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Nader, Ralph, sibling comparisons 1 151 of Isak Dinesen (Karen von Blixen) 1 e29-e30 of poets (Sylvia Plath and) 2 e59-e60 narcissistic personality disorder, creativity and 2 97-98 narcissistic regression, Plath's poetry 2 e60 narration, interior 2 12-13 narrative illustrations, Lautrec's 2 e86-e87 narrative poetry 2 245 narratives 1 639 fictional, role 1 639-640 social understanding and 1 639-640 narrative techniques, of Joyce (James) 2 12 National Academy ofScience age and productivity...

The Life Span Developmental Model of Creativity

Considering this definition, we think it is important to widen our search from the product perspective to other perspectives when we look for new research about creativity and aging. In the first edition of the Encyclopedia of Creativity, Becca Levy and Ellen Langer made a valuable summing-up of the controversy between the so-called Peak and Decline view on the one hand and the Life Span Developmental Model on the other. The decline model was formulated by Herbert Lehman in the middle of the...

Synesthesia and Related Phenomena

Synesthesia was one of the phenomena considered by theorists having a Gestalt orientation. This line of thought stretches from the early twentieth century to the present, and bridges between perceptual and literary (or, poetic) synesthesia. This section is devoted primarily to discussing such a heritage, which has important implications for the study of synesthesia and creativity. As is apt for such a Gestalt orientation, the reader is invited to test himself or herself on a series of tests for...

Aspects of the Transforming Illness

There are multiple aspects to the transforming illness such as resilience, using creativity as coping mechanism, self-efficacy, mastery, compensation, and the experience of flow. Using a debilitating physical condition to improve both your life and work is an example of resilient behavior. Resilience is the capacity to bounce back from setbacks and adapt to events in life that are neither comfortable nor planned. Artists will often use creativity as a coping mechanism during illness as a way to...