Evaluation Standardized Tests

Tactical creativity tasks are relatively highly standardized. Athletes view brief video sequences of a sports game (e.g., basketball, soccer) in which attacking players play against defending players. At the end of the video clip, the final image appears frozen with one player in possession of the ball. The participant takes over the role of the ball holder in the video clip, identifying all opportunities that might possibly lead to a goal/basket. The motor executions (e.g., pass with the nondominant hand/foot, indirect pass) should also be mentioned. Athlete's answers were noted on a specially designed sheet that

Table 1 Statements of soccer coaches from the National Team and the '1. Bundesliga' in Germany

• "Imagination and creativity should be left to the Brasilians" (Franz Beckenbauer)

• "The midfield is not creative enough. We no longer have a Haßler or a Littbarski. Certain things have been neglected that need to be put right" (Jürgen Klinsmann, former German National Team Coach)

• "Technically and tactically, other countries are far ahead of us. That is why in many clubs the creative player is a foreigner" (Christoph Daum, Fenerbahce Istanbul)

• "Whenever the Germans want to be creative they can't manage it. They are unable to control the game" (Jürgen Klopp, Borussia Dortmund)

Source: Grunz A, Memmert D, and PerlJ (2009) Analysis and simulation of actions in games by means of specialself-organizing maps. International Journal of Computer

Science in Sport 8: 22-36.

contained all appropriate decisions. The same observation criteria of originality, flexibility, and fluency were used for the athlete's performance as in the usual divergent thinking tasks in psychology; originality of the proposed solutions were rated by experts. For flexibility, all possible tactical decisions in each situation were categorized into ten different kinds of solution options (e.g., perform a one-on-one action, no-look-pass, and pass with a feint). The number of appropriate answers given by a subject for each video scene was used to measure fluency.

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