Self-confidence and arrogance represent another set of traits that involve internal locus which are related to autonomy. The argument is that people are more confident in terms of expressing their ideas if they do not have to think about others' influence, and most of the time they may even be more superior to others. In our world, where competition is an important factor in achieving success, accomplishment depends highly on the level of dominance, arrogance, and self-confidence of any given person. In this respect, the paper of Raymond Van Zelst and Willard Kerr shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between being productive and describing oneself as 'argumentative,' 'assertive,' and 'self-confident.'
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