Root Shape and Number of Branches

A. The shape, length, and number of root branches are also intimately related to a tooth's form and function. The canine, by virtue of its location in the arch, and its evolutionary function as the fang of carnivores, has the longest and strongest root in both arches. The molars are multirooted to complement the increased size of the occlusal table, as they function in grinding. And so it is with all tooth roots; their form is directly related to crown form, placement in the arch, and function.

B. Some general rules regarding tooth roots and branches are as follows:

1. Roots are normally widest toward the cervical area and taper toward the apex.

2. Anterior teeth and premolars normally have single roots. An exception is the maxillary first premolar, which normally exhibits two root branches, a buccal and a lingual.

3. Maxillary molars normally possess three roots, one lingual and two buccal branches.

4. Mandibular molars normally have two roots, one mesial and one distal branch

Incisor

Incisor

Maxillary Molar

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