History

Although some have speculated that certain ancient plagues were probably typhus, the first contemporary accounts of such a disease appeared during the late fifteenth century. In 1489-90 during the wars of Granada, physicians described a typhus-like disease that killed 17,000 Spanish soldiers - six times the number killed in combat with the Moors. In the early sixteenth century, a similar malady appeared in Italy. During the French siege of Naples in 1528, an apparent typhus epidemic may have...

Candidiasis Including Thrush

Reports of the diverse manifestations of candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and other Candida species have made a major contribution to the literature of medical mycology. As with ringworm, a stable taxonomic base was necessary to underpin research on this mycotic complex. It was mainly a group of yeast specialists working in the Netherlands who clarified the taxonomy the genus Candida was proposed in 1923. Thrush (oral candidiasis), an infection of mucous membranes (especially of the...

Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever Junin

This disease occurs in the heavily agricultural pampas west of Buenos Aires. It is seen in rural regions, mostly in farm workers. Several hundred cases occur annually, mainly in the harvest season between April and July. Infection in humans results from contact with field rodents. The incubation period is 10-14 days, and an insidious onset begins with malaise, fever, chills, head and back pains, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea or constipation. Hemorrhagic manifestations may proceed to death (in...

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common rheumatic disorder afflicting humankind and vertebrates in general. The most common alternative terms, osteoarthrosis and degenerative joint disease, are used because of divergent concepts of the nature and cause of the disorder. One school maintains that OA is a family of systemic inflammatory disorders with similar clinical and pathological results. Another supports the use of the term osteoarthrosis because inflammation is not present. Still another...

Subject Index

Abattoir fever (Q fever), 190, 255, 267-70, 282 abdominal apoplexy, 32 abdominal colic, 185 abnormal metabolism, 141 abortive polio, 258 abruptio placentae, 111 An Account of the Foxglove (Withering), 104-5 acidosis, in milk sickness, 219 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 1-7 from blood transfusions, 54 characteristics, 1-3 histoplasmosis in, 165 history, 3-5 homosexuality and, 3-4 origin of, 5-6 pneumonia in, 255 strongyloidiasis and, 306 toxoplasmosis in, 2, 330 transmission...

Tropical Diabetes

A type of diabetes found primarily in many tropical areas of the world has characteristics of both type I and type II. The clinical profile involves the following (1) a different genetic pattern of diabetes than in temperate regions (2) a low prevalence rate of type I DM (3) a younger age of onset of type II (4) a sex ratio with male predominance in India and Africa, but female predominance in the West Indies (5) an association of low calorie and protein intake with underweight diabetic...

Gestational Diabetes

A type of diabetes present only during pregnancy was noted in 1882. However, it was not until the 1940s that the term gestational diabetes appeared in medical literature. This form of the disease is difficult to distinguish from type II diabetes because a woman could have diabetes before pregnancy but not have it diagnosed until pregnancy. Babies born to diabetic mothers usually are large but may have immature organ systems, in which case they may not survive. In general, cities in the United...

Trachoma

Trachoma (also called granular conjunctivitis and Egyptian ophthalmia) is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. It is characterized by inflammatory granulations on the inner eyelid that severely scar the eye, eventually causing blindness (but not in all cases). It was a leading cause of blindness in the past and still blinds millions in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Two estimates place the number of victims worldwide at between 400 and 500 million, with perhaps 2 million totally blinded....

General Characteristics

Because of its acute onset and obvious symptoms, type I diabetes is readily identified and, therefore, permits a more accurate picture of worldwide prevalence. Type II DM is a chronic disease with generalized symptoms therefore, many cases are not diagnosed. However, rates of type II do appear to be increasing in developing nations. Generally, investigators have been cautious in interpreting an actual increase in the incidence of insulin-dependent DM. Prevalence rates continue to rise because...

Mitch Disease Fr Dogs

Rabies occurs in Africa, Asia, the Americas, and most of Europe. It has never occurred in, or has been eliminated from, Britain, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. Rabies is a disease of wild carnivores, particularly canids such as foxes, wolves, jackals, and coyotes. Skunks and raccoons are also common hosts, as are bats. Virtually any mammal can contract the disease when bitten by an infected animal. Domestic dogs are...

Disease Against Which Vaccination Is Resorted Onlybduring Epidemics

Because it persisted only by passing from one human to another, smallpox could not have existed among the sparse populations of the Paleolithic Age. It may have first appeared sporadically among village dwellers of the Neolithic Age. Smallpox may well have afflicted ancient Egyptians. The face, neck, and shoulders of the mummy of Pharoah Ramses V, who died in 1157 B.C., is disfigured by a rash of elevated pustules, but researchers cannot be sure of the infection that caused them. Dreadful...

Opportunistic and Iatrogenic Infections

Mycetoma is a disease characterized by swelling that affects subcutaneous tissues, with sinuses discharging granules of the pathogen that vary in color. The foot is most frequently involved (Madura foot), but other parts may be infected. Its geographic distribution is mainly tropical. The condition was first recorded in Indian vedic medical treatises (c. 2000-1000 B.C.) as padaavalmika (foot ant-hill) and later described by members of the Indian Medical Service during the mid-nineteenth...

Ringworm Tinea Dermatophytosis

Favus (Latin for honeycomb), a distinctive type of ringworm, was described by Celsus in the first century. He called it porrigo, a term also used by Pliny in the same century and by dermatologists up to the nineteenth century. It is now, however, obsolete, having been replaced by tinea. Celsus also described the inflammatory lesion of some forms of ringworm, which is termed the kerion of Celsus. Not until the mid-1840s was the mycotic nature of favus recognized by three independent workers J....