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Defeating Diabetes

Diabetes can be Reversed

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a-a-a disease, 167

abattoir fever (Q fever), 190, 255, 267-70, 282 "abdominal apoplexy," 32 abdominal colic, 185 abnormal metabolism, 141 abortive polio, 258 abruptio placentae, 111 An Account of the Foxglove (Withering), 104-5 acidosis, in milk sickness, 219 acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 1-7

from blood transfusions, 54 characteristics, 1-3 histoplasmosis in, 165 history, 3-5

homosexuality and, 3-4 origin of, 5-6 pneumonia in, 255 strongyloidiasis and, 306 toxoplasmosis in, 2, 330 transmission patterns, 1-2 tuberculosis and, 342 acrodermatitis chronic atrophicans (ACA), 203 Actinomadura madurae, 131 actinomycetoma, 131 active SCOM, 209

acute anterior poliomyelitis, 258. See also poliomyelitis acute coalescent mastoiditis, 209 acute epiglottitis, 81-82 acute granulocytic leukemia, 197 acute laryngotracheitis, 82 acute lymphatic leukemia, 197 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 197 acute lymphocytic leukemia, 197 acute myeloblastic leukemia, 197 acute myelocytic leukemia, 197 acute myelogenous leukemia, 197 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 197 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), 197 acute otitis media (AOM), 208-11 acute pulmonary histoplasmosis, 163 adult T-cell leukemia, 197 Aedes aegypti, 35, 36, 85-87, 365-66, 368-69 Aedes africanus, 365

Aedes albopictus, 35-36, 85-87 369

Aedes cinereus, 343

Aedes excrucians, 343

Aedes simpsoni, 365

Aeromonas, 93

aflatoxin, 134

Africa

African trypanosomiasis, 7-13 AIDS, 2-3, 5-6 ainhum, 14 amebic dysentery, 20 anemia, 24-25 anthrax, 30 arenaviruses, 38-39 ascariasis, 42

bleeding disorders, 55-57 brucellosis, 59 bubonic plague, 63 cancer, 65 cholera, 77 cystic fibrosis, 84 cytomegalovirus infection, 85 dengue, 86 diabetes, 89-92 Down syndrome, 98 dracunculiasis, 98-100 Ebola virus, 107-109 echinococcosis, 110 emphysema, 113 encephalitis, 115 fascioliasis, 123 favism, 124 filariasis, 125, 127 fungal infections, 129, 131 fungus poisoning, 134 gallstones, 135 gonorrhea, 151 gout, 156

heart-related diseases, 160 herpes simplex, 161 hookworm infection, 166-167 infectious hepatitis, 172 infectious mononucleosis, 174 influenza, 180 lactose intolerance, 183 Lassa fever, 184-185

Africa (continued) leishmaniasis, 191-192 leprosy, 192 Lyme disease, 201 malaria, 203, 204-206 Marburg virus, 207-208 meningitis, 215-217 multiple sclerosis, 220 onchocerciasis, 228-230 ophthalmia, 230, 234 osteoarthritis, 235-236 osteoporosis, 238 paragonimiasis, 240 pellagra, 244 pica, 247, 249-250 pneumonia, 258 poliomyelitis, 260-261 protein-energy malnutrition, 262, 264-265 Q fever, 269 rabies, 270-271, 274 relapsing fever, 275-277 rheumatic fever, 279 rickets, 282

schistosomiasis, 290-292 sickle-cell anemia, 299-300 smallpox, 301, 303 spotted fever, 285 strongyloidiasis, 306

sudden unexplained death syndrome, 311

syphilis, 313-314

syphilis, nonvenereal, 317, 319

tapeworm infection, 320

tetanus, neonatal, 326

treponematoses, 332

trichinosis, 334

tuberculosis, 337

typhoid fever, 346, 348

typhus, epidemic, 354

urolithiasis, 357

yaws, 362, 364

yellow fever, 36, 365-367, 369 "African lethargy," 9 African trypanosomiasis, 7-13 characteristics, 7-9 effects of colonialism on, 11-13 encephalitis lethargica and, 115 history, 9-13 treatment, 13 agnosia, in Alzheimer's disease, 16 AIDS. See acquired immune deficiency syndrome ainhum, 14

air-pollution disease, rickets as, 281 albinism, 139, 141 albuminuria, 145-46 alcohol consumption beriberi and, 46 cirrhosis and, 79-81 diabetes and, 91 heart disease and, 160 lead poisoning from, 186-88 osteoporosis and, 237 tetany and, 329 alcoholic fatty liver, 80-81 "Aleppo boil," 192 alimentary toxic aleukia, 133 "alkali poisoning," 218 alkalosis, 329 alkaptonuria, 141 Allodermanyssus sanguineus, 285 allopurinol, 154

alpha-2-antiplasmin deficiency, 56 Alzheimer's disease, 14-19, 116 Amanita caesarea, 133 Amanita muscaria, 133 Amanita pantherina, 133 Amanita phalloides, 133 Amanita rubescens, 133 Amanita verna, 133 Amanita virosa, 133 amaurotic family idiocy, 321 Amblyomma americanum, 283 Amblyomma cajennense, 283 amebiasis, from Carrion's disease, 68 amebic dysentery, 19-21 amenorrhea, 27, 102, 120

American spotted fever (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), 282-85 American trypanosomiasis, 70-71 Amerindians diabetes, 90-92 gallstones, 134 malaria, 206 osteoarthritis, 235-236 osteoporosis, 238 pellagra, 242 pica, 249

smallpox, 300-301 typhus, epidemic, 353 aminopterin, 199 amnesia, 16 amphotericin B, 165 amyloidosis, 145 amyloid protein, 18-19 amylophagia, 247 anaphylactic reaction, 96, 110 anasarca, 100

Ancylostoma duodenale, 165, 167 anemia, 21-26 in arthritis, 40

from Carrion's disease, 67-68 fasciolopsiasis, 123

glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD]

deficiency, 22, 23-24, 123-25 hemolytic, 23-24, 299 from hookworm infection, 165-67 hypochromic, 73 iatrogenic, 22

in inflammatory bowel disease, 175-76

in lead poisoning, 21, 185

in leishmaniasis, 192

in leukemia, 198

malaria and, 22, 25-26

in malnutrition, 263

from parasites, 21

pernicious, 22

and porotic hyperostosis, 26 from Q fever, 269 in scarlet fever, 289

sickle-cell, 22, 24-25, 125, 142, 256, 298-300 from strongyloidiasis, 306 from tapeworm infection, 320 from trichuriasis, 336 aneurism, syphilis and, 314 "angel wings," 166

angina pectoris, 69, 155, 157. See also heart-related diseases angiosclerosis. See hypertension angiotensin, 171 animal trponematosis, 314 ankylosing spondylitis, 41 ankylosis, 236

The Annals of the Convent at Xanten (Mezeray), 121 Anopheles, 10, 204, 206-7 Anopheles atroparvus, 206 Anopheles labranchiae, 206 Anopheles sacharovi, 206 anorexia brucellosis and, 59 chlorosis and, 73 eclampsia and, 111 malnutrition and, 262 nervosa, 26-29, 41, 73 in tremetol poisoning, 219 in ulcerative colitis, 175 anorexia nervosa, 26-29, 41, 73 anoxic convulsions, 360 anthrax, 29-31, 120, 348 antiquity Alzheimer's disease, 14 anthrax, 30-31 arthritis, 41 ascariasis, 42 bacillary dysentery, 44 cancer, 63 cirrhosis, 80 epilepsy, 118

gallstones, 136 gangrene, 137 genetic disease, 139 gonorrhea, 151-152 leprosy, 194 measles, 213 ophthalmia, 232 periodontal disease, 246 pica, 248

plague of Athens, 251-254 poliomyelitis, 260 rabies, 272 rickets, 280 smallpox, 301 thalassemia, 26 tuberculosis, 338 urolithiasis, 358 antithrombin III deficiency, 57 aortic insufficiency, 280 aortic stenosis, 280 aphasia, 16 aplastic crises, 299 apnea, 32, 308

apolipoprotein E (APOE4), 19 "apoplectic attack," 31 "apoplectic ictus," 31 apoplexy, 31-34. See also stroke appendicitis, 176, 336 apraxia, 16 Arachis hypogea, 133 arboviruses, 34-38 characteristics, 34-35 dengue, 35-36, 85-88, 366 encephalitides, 36-37

Japanese B encephalitis, 36, 38, 181-82, 366 treatment and control, 37-38 yellow fever, 35, 36, 282-83, 365-66 arenaviruses, 38-39, 107; 184-85 Argentine hemorrhagic fever (Junin), 38-39, 184 arrhythmias, in sudden infant death syndrome, 308

arsenic, for leukemia, 198 arteriosclerosis, 17, 136, 138, 155 arthralgias, 163, 200, 202, 279, 287 arthritis, 39-42 in alkaptonuria, 141 in dracunculiasis, 99 gonococcal, 278 in gonorrhea, 150 in histoplasmosis, 163 in inflammatory bowel disease, 175-76 in lupus erythematosus, 200 in Lyme disease, 202 in meningitis, 215 in mumps, 223

osteoarthritis, 41, 133, 234-36, 239, 278

arthritis, (continued) in Paget's disease of bone, 238 in rheumatic fever, 279 rheumatoid, 39-42, 53, 137, 201, 227 in rubella, 287

streptococcal infection and, 304 ascariasis, 42, 255 Ascaris, 336

Ascaris lumbricoides, 42 ascaris pneumonitis, 42 ascites, 80, 100-3 ascorbate, 26 aseptic meningitis, 214

Asia. See East Asia; Middle and Near East; Russia;

South Asia; Southeast Asia Asian SUDS, 309-11 aspergillosis, 128, 132 Aspergillus, 132 Aspergillus flavus, 134 Aspergillus fumigatus, 132 Aspergillus niger, 132 aspiration pneumonia, 327 asthma, ascariasis and, 42 asynapsis, 143 Atharva Veda, 358 "athlete's foot," 129 atoxyl, 13

atrial fibrillation, 104 Australia and New Zealand AIDS, 1 beriberi, 46 bubonic plague, 63 cirrhosis, 79 dengue, 86 echinococcosis, 110 encephalitides, 36 filariasis, 127 gout, 155-156 heart-related diseases, 160 hookworm infection, 167 infectious hepatitis, 173 inflammatory bowel disease, 176 influenza, 180 lactose intolerance, 183 lead poisoning, 188 leprosy, 193 leptospirosis, 196 Lyme disease, 201 measles, 213 meningitis, 216 multiple sclerosis, 221-222 ophthalmia, 230 osteoporosis, 238 Paget's disease of bone, 238 poliomyelitis, 260 Q fever, 267, 269-270

ringworm, 130 scarlet fever, 289

sudden infant death syndrome, 306 sudden unexplained death syndrome, 311 syphilis, 314

syphilis, nonvenereal, 319 tuberculosis, 337 typhus, murine, 355 typhus, scrub, 356 yaws, 364

autoimmune responses, 16, 22, 225-27 See also acquired immune deficiency syndrome; immune system dysfunction autoinfection, 306, 320 "autumnal fever," 350 autumnal hepatitis, 171. See also hepatitis avian tuberculosis, 193 Ayurvedic medical text, 358 azidothymidine (AZT), 6

bacillary dysentery, 21, 43-44 Bacillus anthracis, 29-30 bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), 338 Bacillus lactimorbi, 218 bacteremia, 347

bacterial conjunctivitis, 231. See also conjunctivitis bacterial endocarditis, 304-5. See also endocarditis bacterial pneumonia, 255. See also pneumonia Bacterium tularense, 344 Balantidium coli, 265

"Balkan influenza" (Q fever), 190, 255, 267-70, 282

Bancroftian filariasis, 125-28 Bangungut, 310 "Bannwarth's syndrome," 203 "Barbados distemper," 365 Bartonella bacilliformis, 67-68 Bartonella verrugiformis, 67-68 bat rabies, 274 Bauerwetzel, 224 beef tapeworm, 319-20 bejel, 317-18

benign prostatic hypertrophy, 357 benign SCOM, 209 benign tertian malaria, 203 beriberi, 44-49, 101, 133, 298 "big-belly," 290

bilharzia (schistosomiasis), 167, 290-92, 357

biliary cirrhosis, 79, 134

biliary stasis, 134

biliary tract disease, 106, 346

bipolar disease, leprosy as, 193

birth defects, 139-40

Black Death, 49-52. See also bubonic plague black lung, 52-54

"black measles" (Rocky Mountain spotted fever),

282-85 bladder cancer, 65 bladder-stone disease, 357 blains, 364

blastomycosis, 130-31 bleeding disorders, 54-57 "bleeding fever," 365 blennorrhagia, 316 blindness, 300, 321

blood cancer (leukemia), 66, 196-99, 254, 359

"blue disease" (Rocky Mountain spotted fever),

282-85 bocio, 146

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, 38-39 bone loss. See osteoporosis Book of Medicine (Assyrian), 358 "boomerang leg," 364 borborygmus, 183 Bordetella parapertussis, 360 Bordetella pertussis, 360 Borrelia, 275

Borrelia burgdorferi, 201-3 Borrelia recurrentis, 275 botulism, 57-58, 115, 308 Bouchard's nodes, 235 boutonneuse fever, 285 bovine rabies, 270 bovine tuberculosis, 193, 337 bradycardia, 27, 86, 196 bradykinesia, 240-41 brain damage, 185, 210, 264 brain tumors, epilepsy and, 117 "brandy liver," 80 "breakbone fever," 87 breast cancer, 63-65 Bright's disease, 144-46 Brill's disease, 353 Brill-Zinsser disease, 353 broad fish tapeworm, 320 bronchiectasis, 360 bronchitis, 113, 178, 276 bronchocele, 146

bronchopneumonia, 70, 255, 327 brown lung, 52-54 Brucella, 351 Brucella abortus, 58-60 Brucella melitensis, 58-60 Brucella suis, 58-60 brucellosis, 58-60, 108, 351 Brugia malayi, 125 "bubas," 364 bubonic plague as Black Death, 49-52 characteristics, 60-62, 282-83

history, 62-63

as Plague of Athens, 252, 253 Buerger's diease, 137 bunions, 235 "butterfly" facial rash, 200 "button-scurvy," 318 byssinosis, 52-54

cachexia, 249, 335 cachexia Africana, 249 calcium deficiency, 329-30 calculus, 245 Calomys, 39 calorie deficiency, 262 "camp fever," 352 Campylobacter, 43-44 campylobacteriosis, 43-44, 93 Canada. See North America cancer, 63-67 ancient occurrences, 63-64 bladder, 65 breast, 63-65 causes, 64 cervix, 66-67, 161 colorectal, 65-66 death rates, 160 gastric, 67 hepatitis B and, 172 kidney, 65

leukemia, 66, 196-99 liver, 67, 81, 134, 172 lung, 65-66 lupus as, 199 prostate, 65-66 scrotal, 64 skin, 66, 281 stomach, 65, 67 strongyloidiasis and, 306 thyroid, 66, 147 uterine, 65 Candida albicans, 2, 130 candidiasis, 2, 130 canine distemper, 212 canine rabies, 270-71, 275 Caplan's syndrome, 53 Caraka Samhita, 41 carate, 250-51 carbolic acid, 137 carcinoma, 63, 106, 175 cardiac asthma, 101 cardiac beriberi, 133 cardiac disease. See heart disease cardiac insufficiency, 159 cardiac murmurs, 158-59 cardiogenic shock, 102

cardiovascular disease, 264, 314. See also heart disease; heart-related diseases carditis, 279, 304-5 Caribbean AIDS, 4

arenaviruses, 38 cancer, 65 Chagas' disease, 70 cholera, 77

cytomegalovirus infection, 85 dengue, 86 diabetes, 90 filariasis, 127 glomerulonephritis, 145 G6PD deficiency, 24 hookworm infection, 166-168 lupus erythematosus, 201 malaria, 204 measles, 214 onchocerciasis, 228 ophthalmia, 234 osteoarthritis, 235 pica, 249

protein-energy malnutrition, 263 rabies, 274 schistosomiasis, 290 tetanus, neonatal, 326 yaws, 362

yellow fever, 36, 368-369 caries, bone, 294 caries, dental, 245, 305 carpal-tunnel syndrome, 40, 239 carpopedal spasms, 329 Carrion's disease, 67-69 cataracts, 287 catarrh, 69-70 catherization, cardiac, 158 cellulitis, 121-22, 136, 266, 288, 304-5 Central America AIDS, 2 ainhum, 14 amebic dysentery, 20 bacillary dysentery, 43 cholera, 77 dengue, 87 filariasis, 125 gonorrhea, 151 histoplasmosis, 163 hookworm infection, 166, 168 influenza, 180-181 leishmaniasis, 191 malaria, 204, 206 mycoses, 130-131 onchocerciasis, 228-229 ophthalmia, 230 paragonimiasis, 240

pinta, 250 poliomyelitis, 261 protein-energy malnutrition, 262 Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 284 syphilis, 313 toxoplasmosis, 331 yellow fever, 36, 366-369 cephalic tetanus, 324 cephalopelvic disproportion, 264 Cercopithecus, 208 cerebellar ataxia, 268 cerebral arteriosclerosis, 17 cerebral hemorrhage, 32, 111 cerebral infarction, 33 cerebral schistosomiasis, 291 cerebral toxoplasmosis, 330 "cerebrospinal fever," 214 cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM), 214-17 cerebrovascular attacks, 117 cerebrovascular disease (CVD), 32-33, 117 cervical cancer, 66-67, 161 cestode infection, 70. See also tapeworm infection Chagas' disease, 70-71, 160 chancre, 162,314,316,318 chancroid, 316-17

charbon malin, 29, 31. See also anthrax Cheyne-Stokes respiration, 32 chickenpox, 162, 285, 359-60 childbed fever, 265-67, 304 China. See East Asia, China chincough, 360-62 Chinese liver fluke, 81 chirimacha, 71

Chlamydia trachomatis, 230-31 chlorosis, 23, 71-74. See also iron deficiency anemia cholangitis, 134 cholecystitis, 134 cholelithiasis, 134-36 cholera, 74-78, 93, 128, 180 cholera morbus, 74, 76 cholera nostras, 74 cholesteatoma, 209 cholesterol, 33, 134, 160 chorea, 168-69, 304 chorioretinitis, 84 Christianity Black Death and, 50-52 epilepsy and, 119 ergotism and, 120-21 leprosy and, 194 Saint Anthony's fire and, 287-88 scrofula and, 293-94 sudden infant death syndrome and, 309 Christmas disease, 54-55, 57 chromatolysis, 323

chronic active hepatitis, 173. See also hepatitis chronic cavitary histoplasmosis, 163 chronic dust-induced respiratory disease, 52-54 chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL), 197 chronic kidney disease, 145. See also glomerulonephritis chronic lymphatic leukemia, 197 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 197 chronic lymphogenous leukemia, 197 chronic myelocytic leukemia, 197 chronic myelogenous leukemia, 197 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 197 chronic schistosomiasis, 291 chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), 209 Chrysops discalis, 343-44 chyluria, 125-27 cicatrizing trachoma, 231 cinchona, 206 cirrhosis, 79-81, 100, 173 citreoviridin toxin, 133 Claviceps purpurea, 120, 136 clonorchiasis, 81 Clonorchis sinensis, 81 Clostridium botulinum, 57-58, 308 Clostridium difficile, 93 Clostridium perfringens, 93 Clostridium tetani, 323, 326-27 coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), 52-54 coccidioidomycosis, 130 Cochin-China diarrhea, 306 "cocktails," antiviral, 6 colchicum, 154 colds, 70, 82, 178 cold sores, 161 "colic," 185 "colica pictonum, 187

"colic of Poitou," 187 See also lead poisoning colon cancer, 65, 177 colorblindness, 140 colorectal cancer, 65-66, 177 congenital afibrinogenemia, 56 congenital disorders, 140. See also genetic factors congenital dysfibrinogenemia, 56 congenital heart disease, 97, 160, 261 congenital hypofibrinogenemia, 56 congenital hypothyroidism, 98, 147 congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 286 congenital syphilis, 85, 313, 333. See also syphilis congestive heart failure, 100-1, 158, 166 conjunctivitis, 231-34 bacterial, 231

in Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, 39 in Ebola virus disease, 108 in gonorrhea, 232 granular, 230-31 from herpes simplex, 161 history, 232-34

in Marburg virus disease, 208 in measles, 212 in rubella, 286 simple acute, 231 in tularemia, 344

in varicella-zoster virus disease, 359 viral, 231 Conn's syndrome, 170 consumption, 339. See also tuberculosis contagious abortion, 59 continued fever, 350 convulsions, 120, 185, 215, 329-30, 360 convulsive ergotism, 120 "coolie itch," 165 corneal herpes, 161 coronary artery disease, 101, 157 coronary disease, 159 coronary heart disease, 157, 159-60 cor pulmonale, 101

Corynebacterium diphtheria, 82-83, 94-95

coryza, 82, 212, 251

cotton dust, 52-54

cowpox, 300, 303-4

Coxiella burnetii, 267-70

coxsackievirus, 214

"crab yaws," 362

cranial nerve palsies, 202, 241

craw-craw, 228

creatine phosphokinase, 224

cretinism (congenital hypothyroidism), 98, 147

Crohn's disease, 106, 175-78

croup, 81-83. See also diphtheria cryptococcosis, 131-32

Cryptococcus, 214

Cryptococcus farciminosus, 164

Cryptococcus neoformans, 131-32

Culex tritaeniorhyncus, 181-82

Cushing's syndrome, 170

cutaneous anesthesias, 39

cutaneous anthrax, 29. See also anthrax cutaneous degeneration, 40

cutaneous diphtheria, 95

cutaneous herpes, 161

cutaneous hyperesthesia, 39

cutaneous leishmaniasis, 191

cutaneous tuberculosis, 199

cutaneous tularemia, 344

Cyclops, 99

cynanche maligna, 289. See also diphtheria cysticercosis, 320

cystic fibrosis, 83-84, 261

cystinuria, 141

cytogenetics, 143-44

cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID), 84-85 cytomegalovirus infection, 2, 84-85, 162, 255

DaCosta's syndrome, 158-59 dactylitis, 363 DDT, 354

deafness, 223, 287 "deer-fly fever," 343-44 deficiency diseases. See also diet; malnutrition; vitamins beriberi, 44-49 goiter, 146-49, 330

G6PD deficiency, 22, 23-24, 123-25, 205, 284 iron deficiency anemia, 21, 22-23, 26, 71-74,

248-49 pellagra, 242-44 rickets, 26, 280-82, 329-30 scurvy, 295-98

sudden infant death syndrome and, 308 tetany, 328-30 deforming arthrosis, 236 degenerative joint disease. See osteoarthritis dehydration, 263-64, 335 Delaney amendment of 1958, 66 "Delhi boil," 192 delirium, 215, 347 delta agent, 174. See also hepatitis dementia in Alzheimer's disease, 14-15, 17-19 in cancer, 15 depression and, 15 in Huntington's disease, 168 multi-infarct, 15 in pellagra, 242 stroke and, 15 in syphilis, 314 demyelination, 221-22 dengue, 35-36, 85-88, 366 dengue triad, 86 depression, 15, 178 Dermacentor andersoni, 283, 343 Dermacentor variabilis, 283 Dermacentroxenus rickettsi, 284. See also Rickettsia rickettsii dermatitis, 165, 242 dermatophytosis, 128-30 dermatosis, 263 desert sores, 95 desquamation, 289 "devil's fire," 120 "dew poison," 165 diabetes mellitus (DM), 88-92 candida infection and, 132 characteristics, 91-92 eclampsia and, 111 gangrene in, 137 gestational, 88, 91 glomerulopathies, 145

gout and, 154 heart disease and, 160 history, 88-89

insulin-dependent (Type I), 88-89, 91 non-insulin-dependent (Type II), 88, 89-90, 91 similarity to leprosy, 194 thrifty gene theory and, 135 tropical, 88, 90-91 diarrhea. See also dysentery acute, 92-94 in amebic dysentery, 20 anemia from, 23

in Argentine hemorrhagic fever, 39 ascariasis and, 42 in bacillary dysentery, 44 in cholera, 74-75 in clonorchiasis, 81 Cochin-China, 306 in colchicum, 154 in cystic fibrosis, 83 enteric, 340 in fasciolopsiasis, 123 in giardiasis, 93, 144 in inflammatory bowel disease, 175-76 in lactose intolerance, 93, 183 lead poisoning and, 185 in Legionnaires' disease, 189 in leishmaniasis, 192 in leukemia, 198 malnutrition and, 93, 262 in Marburg virus disease, 208 in measles, 212, 253 in pellagra, 242 in pica, 249 in salmonellosis, 346 salt depletion in, 170 in tapeworm infection, 320 tetany and, 329 in toxoplasmosis, 330 in trichinosis, 334 in trichuriasis, 336 in tularemia, 344 in typhomalarial fever, 349 diarrheal diseases, 92-94 dichuchwa, 319 Dick test, 290

diet. See also deficiency diseases; malnutrition; vitamins aflatoxins, 134 beriberi and, 44-49 cancer and, 66-67 diabetes mellitus and, 89-90 ergotism and, 120-21 favism and, 123-25 fungus poisoning and, 132-34 gallstones and, 134

goiter and, 148-49 gout and, 154-56 hookworm infection and, 166-67 hypertension and, 169

iron deficiency anemia and, 21, 22-23, 26, 71-74 milk sickness and, 218 osteoporosis and, 237-38 pellagra and, 242-44 pica, 72, 188, 247-50 protein-energy malnutrition, 261-65 rickets and, 280-82 scurvy and, 295-98 trichinosis and, 333-36 typhoid fever and, 346 urolithiasis and, 357 in Victorian times, 72 Digitalis lanata, 105 Digitalis purpurea, 105 diphtheria, 94-96 characteristics, 94-95 croup and, 81-83 cutaneous, 95 history, 95-96 scarlet fever and, 289, 305 tetanus and, 325 Diphyllobothrium latum, 319-20 diplopia, 226 Dipylidium canium, 319 discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), 199-201 disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI), 150

disseminated histoplasmosis, 163-64 disseminated lupus erythematosus, 200 distal radius fractures, 237 DNA. See genetic factors dog tapeworm, 319 Down syndrome, 16, 19, 96-98, 143 DPT vaccine, 325-26 dracunculiasis, 98-100 Dracunculus medinensis, 98-99 "drip," 150 dropsy, 100-5 in beriberi, 47 characteristics, 100-2 history, 102-5 in hookworm infection, 166 in hypertension, 170 in scarlet fever, 145-46, 289 drug addiction, epilepsy and, 117 drunken bread syndrome, 133 "dry bellyache," 185, 187 dry gangrene, 136 Dubin-Johnson syndrome, 56 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 224-25 "Dumdum" fever (leishmaniasis), 191-92 duodenal ulcer, 107

dwarf tapeworm, 320 dysentery, 105. See also diarrhea amebic, 19-21 bacillary, 21, 43-44 characteristics, 105 diarrheal diseases, 92-94 enteric diarrhea and, 340 dysmimia, 226 dyspepsia, 105-7, 166 dysphagia, 108, 226-27 dysphonia, 226 dyspnea in brown lung, 53 in croup, 82 dropsy and, 101-2 in histoplasmosis, 163 in myasthenia gravis, 226 in pneumonia, 256 in varicella-zoster virus disease, 359 dysuria, 161, 291

ear infections acute otitis media, 208-11 mastoiditis, 208-11, 304 otitis media, 212, 289, 304, 360 otitis media with effusion, 209 East Asia arenaviruses, 38-39 bubonic plague, 62, 63 cancer, 67 cholera, 77 dengue, 86 diabetes, 90 encephalitis, 115 gonorrhea, 151 herpes simplex, 161 influenza, 180 lactose intolerance, 183 leishmaniasis, 191 leptospirosis, 196 malaria, 204 ophthalmia, 230 poliomyelitis, 261 protein-energy malnutrition, 262 rabies, 270

sudden infant death syndrome, 306 tapeworm infection, 320 tetanus, neonatal, 326 treponematoses, 332 typhus, scrub, 356 yaws, 362 China amebic dysentery, 20 anthrax, 30 ascariasis, 42

East Asia, China (continued) beriberi, 45 Black Death, 49 brucellosis, 59 bubonic plague, 63 cancer, 67 cholera, 76-77 clonorchiasis, 81 diabetes, 89, 91 fasciolopsiasis, 123 favism, 123

filariasis, 125, 127-128 fungus poisoning, 133 gallstones, 134 goiter, 146 gout, 156

G6PD deficiency, 23 hookworm infection, 166 inflammatory bowel disease, 176 Japanese B encephalitis, 182 lead poisoning, 186, 188 leishmaniasis, 191 leprosy, 195 leptospirosis, 196 Lyme disease, 201 malaria, 205 measles, 213 meningitis, 215-216 ophthalmia, 230 paragonimiasis, 240 pica, 249

rheumatic fever, 279 schistosomiasis, 290-292 smallpox, 301-302 tapeworm infection, 319 tuberculosis, 337-338 typhomalarial fever, 349 typhus, scrub, 356 urolithiasis, 357-358 Japan bacillary dysentery, 43 beriberi, 45-48 bleeding disorders, 56-57 botulism, 58 cancer, 65, 67 cholera, 77 cirrhosis, 79 clonorchiasis, 81 diabetes, 89-91 Down syndrome, 98 encephalitis, 38 filarisasis, 125 fungus poisoning, 133 gallstones, 134-135 gout, 156

hookworm infection, 166

inflammatory bowel disease, 176 Japanese B encephalitis, 181-182 lactose intolerance, 183 leptospirosis, 195 leukemia, 198 Lyme disease, 201 ophthalmia, 230 osteoporosis, 238 paragonimiasis, 240 schistosomiasis, 290-291 stroke, 33

sudden infant death syndrome, 306 sudden unexplained death syndrome, 309, 311

tuberculosis, 337, 339, 341 tularemia, 343-344 typhus, epidemic, 354 typhus, scrub, 356 urolithiasis, 357 Korea beriberi, 45 cholera, 77 diabetes, 89 fasciolopsiasis, 123 paragonimiasis, 240 typhus, epidemic, 354 typhus, scrub, 356 eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), 35, 36, 38 East India Company, 296 Ebers Papyrus, 99, 102, 162, 167, 232, 246 Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), 109 Ebola virus disease, 107-10, 208 echinococcosis, 110 Echinococcus granulosis, 110, 319 echovirus, 214 eclampsia, 110-12 eczema, 194, 251 edema in beriberi, 47 in eclampsia, 110 in influenza, 181 in Japanese encephalitis, 182 in kwashiorkor, 261, 263 in pinta, 251 in trichinosis, 335 effort syndrome, 159 "Egyptian chlorosis," 166 electrocardiogram, invention of, 157-58 elephantiasis, 125-28 embolic pneumonia, 255 embolism, 137 empeines, 250 emphysema, 112-14, 163 empyema, 256 enanthem, 184, 208 encephalitides, 34, 36-37, 86

encephalitis Japanese, 36, 38, 115, 181-82, 366 lethargica, 114-16, 179, 24 0-41 Lyme disease and, 202 measles and, 212 meningitis and, 214 mumps and, 223 rabies and, 115 rubella and, 287 scrub typhus and, 356 trichinosis and, 335 varicella-zoster virus disease and, 359 encephalitis lethargica, 114-16, 179, 240-41 encephalomyelitis, 196 endemic bladder-stone disease, 357 endemic cretinism, 147-49 endemic goiter, 146-49 endemic syphilis. See syphilis endemic typhus, 355. See also typhus endemic yellow fever, 365. See also yellow fever endocarditis anemia in, 72 Candida, 132 drug abuse and, 159 lupus and, 200 Q fever and, 267 streptococcal, 304-5 endomyocardial fibrosis, 160 energy deficiency, 262 enfermedad de Robles (onchocerciasis), 125,

228-30, 234 Entamoeba coli, 19 Entamoeba hartmanni, 19 Entamoeba histolytica, 19-21, 105 enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis

(ET-NANBH), 171, 174 enteric fever, 345. See also typhoid fever enteric infection, 93, 175 enterobiasis, 116 Enterobius vermicularis, 116 eosinophilia, in trichinosis, 335 epidemic parotitis, 222. See also mumps epidemics AIDS, 1-7

Alzheimer's disease, 18 anthrax, 29-30 bacillary dysentery, 43 beriberi, 46 Black Death, 49-52

bubonic plague, 49-52, 60-63, 252-53,

282-83 Carrion's disease, 68-69 cholera, 74-77 croup, 83 dengue, 86-87 diphtheria, 94

Ebola virus disease, 107-8

encephalitis lethargica, 114-16, 240-41

ET-NANBH, 174

glomerulonephritis, 145

gonorrhea, 151

influenza, 179-81, 258

Japanese B encephalitis, 181

lead poisoning, 187

Legionnaire's disease, 189-90

measles, 213, 253

meningitis, 215-17

mumps, 224

Plague of Athens, 251-54 pneumonia, 256 polio, 258-61 puerperal fever, 266 Q fever, 267, 269 rabies, 274

relapsing fever, 276-77 rubella, 286 scarlet fever, 288-89 smallpox, 301-2 sporotrichosis, 131 sweating sickness, 276, 311-12 trachoma, 233-34 trypanosomiasis, 10-13 tuberculosis, 339-40, 342 typhus, 275, 282-83, 353-55 yellow fever, 365-69 epidemic typhus, 275, 282-83, 353-55 epidemic yellow fever, 365-69. See also yellow fever

Epidermophyton, 129 Epidermophyton floccosum, 129 epilepsy, 31, 111, 116-19 Epstein-Barr virus, 162, 174-75 equine encephalitis, 115, 173 equine rabies, 270 ergot intoxication, 288 ergotism, 120-21 characteristics, 120 gangrene in, 136-37 history, 120-21 as Plague of Athens, 252-53 Saint Anthony's fire in, 287-88 sweating sickness and, 312 erosive arthritis, 42. See also arthritis erosive inflammatory osteoarthritis, 235 erosive joint disease, 41 erysipelas, 121-22, 136, 257, 288, 304-5 erysipelas grave internum, 122 erythema, 208

erythema chronicum migrans (ECM), 202-3 erythema marginatum, 277, 304 erythema migrans, 203 erythema nodosum, 163

erythematous maculopapular rash, 184 eschar, 285

Escherichia coli, 43, 93, 214 esophagitis, 106

espundia (leishmaniasis), 191-92 essential fevers, 350 essential hypertension, 169 estrogen, 134, 237

ET-NANBH, 171, 174. See also hepatitis eumycetoma, 131 Eupatorium urtacaefolium, 218 Europe AIDS, 1-2

amebic dysentery, 20

anemia, 25-26

anthrax, 29-31

arenaviruses, 38

arthritis, 42

ascariasis, 42

bacillary dysentery, 44

black and brown lung disease, 52-53

Black Death, 50-52

bleeding disorders, 55, 56

botulism, 58

brucellosis, 58-59

bubonic plague, 60, 62-63

cancer, 65

cholera, 74-75, 77

cirrhosis, 79-80

croup, 83

cystic fibrosis, 84

cytomegalovirus infection, 85

dengue, 86

diabetes, 90

diphtheria, 95

Down syndrome, 96

dropsy, 101-105

Ebola virus, 109

echinococcosis, 110

emphysema, 113

encephalitis lethargica, 115

epilepsy, 119

ergotism, 120-121

fascioliasis, 123

favism, 123-124

fungal infections, 130-132

fungus poisoning, 133

gallstones, 135

gangrene, 136, 138

glomerulonephritis, 145

goiter, 146-148

gonorrhea, 151-152

gout, 154-155

G6PD deficiency, 23

heart-related diseases, 159-160

herpes simplex, 161

histoplasmosis, 163

hookworm infection, 166-167

infectious hepatitis, 172

inflammatory bowel disease, 176-177

influenza, 179-180

lactose intolerance, 183

lead poisoning, 185-188

leprosy, 193-195

leptospirosis, 195-196

Lyme disease, 201, 203

malaria, 206-207

Marburg virus, 207

meningitis, 215-216

multiple sclerosis, 221

mumps, 224

myasthenia gravis, 225

ophthalmia, 232-234

osteoarthritis, 235-236

Paget's disease of bone, 239-240

Parkinson's disease, 240

pellagra, 243-244

pica, 248-249

poliomyelitis, 259-261

puerperal fever, 266-267

Q fever, 267-270

rabies, 272-274

relapsing fever, 276-277

rheumatic fever, 279

rickets, 280-281

ringworm, 129

rubella, 286

Saint Anthony's fire, 288 scarlet fever, 288-290 scrofula, 293-294 scurvy, 297-298 smallpox, 301-303 strokes, 32-33

sudden infant death syndrome, 306 sweating sickness, 311-312 syphilis, 314-316, 318 tapeworm infection, 320 Tay-Sachs disease, 322-323 tetanus, 325-326 tetanus, neonatal, 326 tetany, 330 toxoplasmosis, 330 trench fever, 331 treponematoses, 332 trichinosis, 334-335 tuberculosis, 337, 339-341 tularemia, 343, 345 typhoid fever, 348 typhomalarial fever, 350 typhus, epidemic, 353-354 urolithiasis, 357-358 whooping cough, 361

yaws, 364 yellow fever, 36 eustachian tube dysfunction, 209 "evil fire," 120 exanthema, 251, 289 exanthematous dermatoses, 359 exercise, diabetes mellitus and, 90

facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy (FSHD), 225

factor VII deficiency, 56

"faeco-malarial fever," 351

falciparum malaria, 300

false croup, 83

famine, pica and, 249

"famine fever," 275, 352. See also relapsing fever farcy, 164

Fasciola hepatica, 123

fascioliasis, 123

fasciolopsiasis, 123

Fasciolopsis buski, 123

fat intake, 66, 90

fatty degeneration, 94, 219

fatty-liver disease (kwashiorkor), 261-63

favism, 23-24, 123-25

Favus, 129

febre maculosa brasiliera (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), 282-85 febris miliaria rubra, 289 fersa, 213

fiber, diabetes and, 90 fibrin-stabilizing factor deficiency, 56 fibrosis, 80, 255

fiebre de Choix (Rocky Mountain spotted fever), 282-85

fiebre manchada (Rocky Mountain spotted fever),

282-85 "field fever," 196 "fiery serpent," 99 fievre boutonneuse, 285 fievre jaune, 365 filarial worms, 125-28, 228-30 filariasis, 10, 125-28 fistulas, 176, 294 Fitzgerald trait, 55 "five-day fever," 331 Flaujeac trait, 55 Flavivirus, 35, 36, 86, 181 Fleckfieber, 352 Fletcher trait, 55 flu. See influenza folic acid, 199

follicular conjunctivitis, 232 follicular hyperplasia, 174 "foot drop," 185 founder effect, 322

Fournier's gangrene, 137 fox rabies, 274-75 framboesia, 362. See also yaws Francisella (Pasteurella) tularensis, 343-45 Fraser, T. R., 22

"French disease," 313. See also syphilis "French pox," 315. See also syphilis frostbite, 137, 194 fulminating blood infection, 215 functional asplenia, 256 functional dyspepsia, 105-6 fungemia, 163

fungus infections (mycoses), 128-32 blastomycosis, 130-31 candidiasis, 2, 130 coccidioidomycosis, 130 cryptococcosis, 131-32 histoplasmosis, 130, 163-65 opportunistic and iatrogenic, 131-32 paracoccidioidomycosis, 130-31 rhinosporidiosis, 132 ringworm, 129-30, 251 sporotrichosis, 131 fungus poisoning, 132-34

furfuraceous idiocy, 143. See also Down syndrome Fusarium, 133

gallstones, 134-36 gangosa, 362-64 gangrene, 136-38 cancer and, 63 causes, 136-37 characteristics, 136 in ergotism, 120 in erysipelas, 122 history, 137-38 in Plague of Athens, 253 in Saint Anthony's fire, 287 "gaol fever," 352 gas gangrene, 136 gastric cancer, 67 gastric remittent fever, 351 gastric tetany, 328 gastritis, 106

gastroenteritis, 93-94, 327 gastrointestinal hemorrhage, 347 gastrointestinal histoplasmosis, 164 gastrointestinal tularemia, 344 Gaucher's disease, 320

genetic disease, 138-44. See also genetic factors genetic drift, 322-23 genetic factors, 138-44 in alkaptonuria, 141 in Alzheimer's disease, 16 in anemia, 22, 26

genetic factors, (continued) in arthritis, 40, 141, 235 birth defects, 139-40 in bleeding disorders, 54-57 in breast cancer, 65-66 colorblindness, 140 in cystic fibrosis, 83 in diabetes mellitus, 89, 91 in diphtheria, 94 in Down syndrome, 96-98, 143 in heart disease, 160 in hemophilia, 140 history, 139-42 in Huntington's disease, 169 in hypertension, 169-71 in inflammatory bowel disease, 175-77 in lactose malabsorption, 183 molecular medicine and, 142-44 in multiple sclerosis, 222 in muscular dystrophies, 224-25 in Paget's disease of bone, 239-40 in polydactyly, 140 in sickle-cell anemia, 142, 298-300 in Tay-Sachs disease, 320-23 in trisomy, 96, 143 genital herpes, 161-62. See also herpes viruses geophagy, 247-49 "German measles," 285-87 gestational diabetes, 88, 91 giant-cell tumor of bone, 239 giant intestinal fluke, 123 Giardia lamblia, 93, 144 giardiasis, 93, 144 gingivitis, 244-46 "gin liver," 80

glandular fever (mononucleosis), 85, 174-75, 330

glandular tularemia, 344

glaucoma, 359

glebfieber, 365

glomerular disease, 101

glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease), 144-46,

304-5 Glossina morsitans, 7 Glossina palpalis, 7-8

glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PD]

deficiency, 22, 23-24, 123-25, 205, 284 glycosuria, 88

G_M2(beta) gangliosidosis, 320-21

goiter, 146-49, 330

gonococcal conjunctivitis, 232

gonococcal ophthalmia, 150

gonorrhea, 150-53, 214, 232, 316-17

gout, 153-56, 185, 187, 234, 278. See also arthritis goutte asthenique primative, 40

gozzo, 146

G6PD deficiency. See glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency grand mal seizures, 117-19 granular conjunctivitis, 230-31. See also conjunctivitis granulomas, 177 grass tetany, 328 "Great Pestilence," 49 "grip." See influenza grosse vairolle, 315

"ground itch" (hookworm infection), 165 "Guinea worm" (dracunculiasis), 98-100 gumma, 314

Haemagogus, 36, 365

Haemophilus influenzae type B, 81-82

Hageman trait, 55

hairballs, 247

hairy-cell leukemia, 197

hand-foot syndrome, 299

Hansen's disease. See leprosy

Haplopappus heterophyllus, 218

"hard measles," 211-14

heart block, 202

heartburn, 106

heart disease, 156-61. See also heart-related diseases cardiac insufficiency, 159 causes, 33, 160 congenital, 97, 160, 261 congestive heart failure, 100-1, 158, 166 coronary, 157, 159-60 fatty degeneration, 94 genetic factors, 138 heart-valve disorders, 267, 278 history, 156-61 increase in, 159-60 ischemic, 33, 159 percussion technique, 156-57 rheumatic, 159, 277-80 heart murmurs, 47, 158-59 heart-related diseases. See also heart disease beriberi, 47, 101 cardiac asthma, 101 cardiac beriberi, 133 Chagas' disease, 70 Down syndrome, 97 dropsy and, 100-1, 104 gout, 155 lupus, 200

muscular dystrophy, 225 myocarditis, 70, 268, 287, 304, 335 peripartum cardiac failure, 160 strokes, 33 surgery, 280

typhoid fever, 347 Heberden's nodes, 235-36 "Heine-Medin disease," 258. See also poliomyelitis helper T4 lymphocytes, 2 hematopoiesis, 84 hematuria, 291, 358 hemiparesis, 202 hemiparkinsonism, 241 hemiplegia, 237 hemochromatosis, 79 hemoglobinura, 124 hemolysis, 23

hemolytic anemia, 23-24, 299

hemophilia, 54, 57, 140

Hemophilus influenzae, 214

hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, 232

hemorrhagic dengue, 36, 85-87. See also dengue hemorrhagic mediastinitis, 30

hemorrhagic meningitis, 30

hemorrhagic pancreatitis, 310

hemorrhagic sepsis, 62

hemorrhoids, in dropsy, 102

hemostasis, 54-57

hepatic ailments, 236, 264. See also liver hepatitis, 171-74 from blood transfusions, 54 delta agent, 174

enterically transmitted non-A, non-B, 171, 174 hepatitis A, 171-72 hepatitis B, 67, 79-80, 101, 171-73 hepatitis C, 173 Leptospira in, 195 meningitis and, 214 from mumps, 223 from prenatal rubella, 287 Q fever and, 267 hepatitis A, 171-72 hepatitis B, 67, 79-80, 101, 171-73 hepatitis C, 173

hepatocellular carcinoma, 79-80 hepatosplenomegaly, 84, 269, 291 heredity, 138-44. See also genetic factors herpes viruses genital, 161-62 herpes praeputialis, 162 herpes progenitalis, 162 herpes simplex, 161-62 herpes zoster, 214, 359-60 trigeminal nerve, 359 vulva, 162 hex A deficiency, 321 Hhamikah, 287 hiatus hernia, 106 "hidden fire," 120

high blood pressure, 160, 169-71. See also hypertension hilar adenopathy, 163

hip disease, 235. See also arthritis hip fracture, 237-38

Histoplasma capsulatum, 130, 163-65

histoplasmosis, 130, 163-65

"His-Werner disease," 331

HIV infection, 1-2, 5, 115. See also acquired immune deficiency syndrome Hmong people, 311 Hodgkin's disease, 254 "holy fire," 120 honey, botulism from, 58 hookworm infection, 165-68, 292 horsepox, 304 hospital gangrene, 137-38 host-versus-graft reaction, 260 HSV-1 and 2 infections, 161-62 human leukocyte antigens (HLA), 222, 226 human lymphatic filariasis, 125 Huntington's disease (chorea), 168-69, 304

hydatid cysts, 110 hydatidosis, 110 hydrocele, 126 hydrocephalus, 100 hydronephrosis, 291 "hydrophobia" (rabies), 115, 270-75 hydrothorax, 100, 102-4 hydroureter, 291 Hymenolepsis nana, 319-20 hypercholesterolemia, 101 hyperesthesia, 359 hyperglycemia, 92 hyperkeratosis, 251 hyperlipidemia, 155 hyperpiesis. See hypertension hyperplasia, 68, 182 hypertension, 169-71 characteristics, 169-70 dropsy and, 101 eclampsia and, 110-12 gangrene and, 138 gout and, 155 history, 170-71 primary vs. secondary, 169 salt-sensitive, 170 strokes and, 33 WHO classification, 169 hyperthyroidism, 237 hyperuricemia, 153-56 hyperventilation tetany, 328 hypocalcemia, 328 hypocalcemic convulsions, 329-30 hypochromic anemia, 73 hypoglycemia, 219, 263-64 hypomagnesemic convulsions, 329-30

hyponatremia, 263 hypotension, 27, 39, 86 hypothermia, 27, 263-64, 308 hypothyroidism, 47, 72, 148, 226 hypotonia, 196, 321 hypovolemic shock, 39 hypoxia, 82, 308, 324 hysteria, anorexia nervosa as, 28

iatrogenic anemia, 22

IBD (inflammatory bowel disease), 175-78

ichthiosismus, 58

icterus, 196

"ictus," 31

idiopathic adenitis, 175 idiopathic calcium-stone disease, 357 ileal ulceration, 177. See also Crohn's disease Ilheus virus, 36

immune system dysfunction. See also acquired immune deficiency syndrome Alzheimer's disease, 16 myasthenia gravis, 225-27 pernicious anemia, 22 pneumocystis pneumonia, 254-55 pneumonia, 255-56 immunosuppressive drugs, 200 impetigo, 304 "incipient stroke," 33 India. See South Asia "Indian tick-typhus," 285 indigestion (dyspepsia), 105-7, 166 indomethacin, 154 "industrial anthrax," 29 infant botulism, 57-58 infantile beriberi, 45, 48 infantile edema (kwashiorkor), 261-63 infantile gastroenteritis, 94 infantile paralysis, 258. See also poliomyelitis infantile pellagra (kwashiorkor), 261-63 infantile scurvy, 295, 297 infantile tetany, 329 infectious hepatitis, 171-74 infectious mononucleosis, 85, 174-75, 330 infectious parotitis, 222. See also mumps infectious pneumonia, 255. See also pneumonia infertility. See sterility inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 175-78 influenza, 178-81 catarrh in, 70 characteristics, 178-79 croup and, 81

encephalitis lethargica and, 114-15 history, 114-15, 179-81 influenza A, 179 as Plague of Athens, 253

pneumonia in, 255-56 similarity to leukemia, 198 sweating sickness and, 312 Ingrassia, Giovanni, 289 insulin, 89

insulin-dependent diabetes, 88-89, 91. See also diabetes mellitus intermittent fevers, 204. See also malaria interstitial pneumonia, 85 intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 33 intravascular coagulation, 111 intruded yaws, 364 involutional osteoporosis, 237 iodine deficiency, 148-49 irkintia, 319

iron deficiency anemia, 21, 22-23, 26, 71-74,

248-49 ischemia, 33

ischemic heart disease, 159 "Italian eruptive fever," 285 Ixodes dammini, 201, 203 Ixodes holocyclus, 285

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