Affective Reactions to Stigmatized Individuals

Many types of stigmas have the capacity to evoke strong negative affective responses in observers (Bodenhausen, 1993 Hosoda, Stone-Romero, & Stone, 2003 Stone et al., 1992 Stone & Colella, 1996). This is especially true for marks that (a) are considered to be disruptive (e.g., person is considered to be emotionally unstable), (b) have to do with aesthetic factors (e.g., gross physical deformities, severe skin problems), or (c) pose a threat to the well-being of others (e.g., leprosy,...

Physical Attractiveness as a Factor in Selection Judgments

A possible reason for the greater occupational success of physically attractive persons is that they are given advantages in the initial screening and selection into jobs. In support of this hypothesis, research suggests that the appearance of the applicant seems to influence the interviewer's selection decisions at all phases of the selection process (Carlson, 1967 Carroll, 1966 Kinicki & Lockwood, 1985 Raza & Carpenter, 1987 Rynes & Gerhart, 1990 Springbett, 1958). In one of the...

Unfair Discrimination

In organizational contexts, unfair discrimination can result from the use of invalid (biased) measures of both predictors and criteria. For example, a preemployment test that measured factors that were not predictive of actual job performance (e.g., previous membership in college fraternities or sororities) would discriminate unfairly among job applicants. In addition, a measure of job performance would discriminate unfairly against job incumbents to the extent that its variance was a function...

Physical Attractiveness in Performance Appraisal and Promotions

The greater occupational success of attractive employees relative to unattractive employees could also reflect biases in performance appraisal and promotion. In complex jobs where decision makers may have difficulty in reaching consensus as to what should or should not be important, physical appearance may be one of the few attributes on which decision makers agree. The importance of appearance in determining appraisals and promotions was demonstrated by Nykodym and Simonetti (1987) in a survey...

The Cycle of Conflict Among Groups

Intergroup conflict based on social identity membership will likely result in prejudice, discrimination, and bias in the workplace. Likewise, stereotypes and prejudicial attitudes formed outside of the organizational context are likely to emerge and fuel intergroup conflicts within the workplace. Thus, group conflict and discrimination may both be viewed as cause and consequence. The cyclical nature of this interaction has been discussed within the context of the theory of intergroup anxiety....

Attractiveness Bias as a Behavioral Effect

In examining attractiveness biases, the most frequent approach has been to use passive-observer procedures where the judge watches and evaluates with no opportunity to interact with the ratee. One might expect that when the perceiver and the perceived can interact, this would provide an opportunity for the perceiver to overcome his or her biases. This would suggest that attractiveness biases are attenuated in situations in which there is interaction and an opportunity to become familiar with...

The Relationship of Physical Attractiveness to Occupational Success

In their meta-analysis, Langlois et al. (2000) calculated an average weighted effect size (d) of .76 (p < .05) that showed that attractive persons were more successful than unattractive persons. This was the largest effect found for adults with the only larger effect found for popularity ratings of children (d .77). It is instructive to examine in more detail two of the studies in the Langlois et al. (2000) meta-analysis that examined physical attractiveness as a predictor of career success....