Substantive Concerns

Ultimately, the significance of research on infant mortality resides in the fact that few, if any, human experiences are more tragic or emotionally devastating as the death of an infant or child. At the societal level, the loss of human potential, economic or otherwise, occasioned by infant death is dramatic. Thus, the infant mortality rate (IMR) has been employed worldwide as a key social indicator (World Bank 1998), e.g., as a critical test'' for identifying countries as superior health...

The Population Health Perspective

Prior to defining what we mean by a population perspective,'' a word or two is warranted on the differing approaches of demographers and epidemiologists toward studying ''health.'' As Jack Caldwell (2001) noted Demography has maintained its primary focus on population, births, and deaths. All are definable within a fairly high degree of precision, a criterion about which demographers feel strongly When demographers purport to write on health, most of their output is usually on mortality change....

Integrating Biological Markers and Psychosocial Pathways

The life course perspective discussed in the previous section has led naturally to the search for specific biological mechanisms that link early life environments to physical and psychological health outcomes. Demographers and social epidemiologists alike have begun to address the possibility of mapping the linkages between early life circumstances and subsequent health outcomes by incorporating biological markers into study designs. Early life circumstances ''imprint'' themselves on the...

Longlived Monkeys Have Life Spans Proportional To Human Centenarians

Centenarian humans are not out of the scope of primate longevity, especially given the large numbers of human observations that is, high numbers increase the probability of sampling the extreme right tail of the distribution. Cebus monkeys exhibit relative life span potentials similar to humans and converge in traits such as a relatively large brain, generalized ability to exploit a wide range of ecological niches over a broad geographical distribution, fruit-based omnivorous diet, and...

References

Population and development in Mexico since 1940 An interpretation. Population and Development Review 12(1) 47-75. American Assembly. 1963. The population dilemma. Englewood Cliffs, N. J. Prentice-Hall. Anderson, J. E., and J. G. Cleland. 1984. The world fertility survey and contraceptive prevalence surveys A comparison of substantive results. Studies in Family Planning 15(1) 1-13. Aparicio, R. 1988. Niveles, tendencias e impacto demogr fico de la anticoncepci...

Four Human Ecological Concepts And The Analysis Of Migration

This section3 discusses the conceptual and theoretical development of the four rubrics of the ecological system and proposes the kinds of relationships anticipated between each and population change due to internal migration. It is not an overstatement to say that organization is the fundamental element of the subject matter of human ecology. This is so because it is social organization that mediates the balance between population size, growth, and distribution and the natural environment upon...

Talhin Ka Matlab

Females' labor force participation and intimate femicide An empirical assessment of the backlash hypothesis. Violence and Victims 14(3) (Fall) 277-291. Bauer, J. 1990. Demographic change and Asian labor markets in the 1990s. Population and Development Review 16(4) (December) 615-645. Baum, C. L. 2002. A dynamic analysis of the effect of child care costs on the work decisions of low-income mothers with infants. Demography 39(1) (February) 139-164. Bener'ia, L. 1999. The...

The Population Policy Process

This section addresses four fundamental questions What is the nature of the population policy process Who are the various policy actors Which demographic variables are amenable to interventions And, finally, what are the policy levers and the instruments available to implement population policies The population policy process consists of the conditions, events, and products that connect the initial idea for a population policy to its ultimate development and imple mentation. In principle, the...

Historical Links Between Demography And Epidemiology

Epidemiology and demography share a common linguistic heritage (Rockett 1999). The term epidemiology derives from the Greek roots epi (upon) and demos (people) and logos (study). Meanwhile, demos and another Greek root, graphein (to write, draw) combine to form the term demography. Given these roots, it is not surprising that the two disciplines share a common agenda centered on the study of populations as opposed to individuals. Interestingly, the population focus of epidemiology became...

Social Epidemiology and Social Demography Contrasted

Palloni and Morenoff (2001) provide a useful summary of major methodological differences between demography and epidemiology. First, epidemiologists are taught during their training to view randomized clinical trials as the ''gold standard'' of evidence. No doubt this claim stems from famous instances in which observational data (such as the apparently protective effect of beta-carotene intake on lung cancer risk) were later overturned or contradicted by clinical trial evidence (beta-carotene...

Fertility

Not unlike demographic research more generally, the bulk of anthropological demography to date has concentrated on fertility and related issues. This can be roughly divided between those studies that directly engage the larger demographic literature and those that deal with fertility and reproduction without great familiarity with or interest in the work of nonanthropological demographers. The latter tends to fall into two categories work stemming from a medical anthropology tradition and that...