References

Aboofazeli, R., Zia, H., Needham, T.E., 2002. Transdermal delivery of nicardipine an approach to in vitro permeation enhancement. Drug Deliv. 9, 239-247. Agrawal, G.P., Juneja, M., Agrawal, S., Jain, S.K., Pancholi, S.S., 2004. Preparation and characterization of reverse micelle based organogels ofpiroxicam. Pharmazie. 59, 191-193. Ainbinder, D., Touitou, E., 2005. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery. Drug Deliv. 12, 297-303. Akhter, S.A., Barry, B.W., 1985. Absorption...

Advances In Using Microemulsions As Topical And Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems

As stated at the beginning of the chapter, an emulsion is a fine dispersion of two immiscible phases, an oil phase and a water phase, in the presence of emulsifier(s). It is kinetically stable because of the reduced interfacial tension in the presence of the surface-active agents (surfactants and or amphiphilic compounds). If a dispersion system contains sufficient levels of one or more surface-active agents to cover the entire interface of the two immiscible phases, but not enough to make the...

Terpenes terpenoids and essential oils

Terpenes are important constituents of essential oils, having a chemical structure consisting of repeated isoprene (C5H8) units. They are classified into monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), and diterpenes (C20) based on whether they are made up of two, three, or four isoprene units respectively. Based on the number ofcyclic rings in the structure, terpenes can also be classified as acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic. The essential oils of eucalyptus, chenopodium, and ylang ylang...

Alcohols fatty alcohols and glycol

Ethanol is a commonly used penetration enhancer in many transdermal formulations and patch systems. It is reported to permeate through human skin with a steady state flux of approximately 1 mg cm h (Berner et al., 1989). In vitro studies have demonstrated that ethanol increased the transdermal transport of levonorgesterol, estradiol, hydrocortisone, and 5-fluorouracil through rat skin (Friend et al., 1988). In vivo studies have confirmed that ethanol has been able to enhance estradiol...

Conclusions

During the past decade pulmonary drug delivery technology advanced substantially due to several inventions in propellants, excipients, and device technologies. The large surface area of the human lung, along with its rich blood supply, rapid onset of drug action with high bioavailability, and other physiological advantages, make it a potential route for treating asthma, COPD, and other pulmonary disorders. Minimally invasive drug delivery through the lung can be achieved using environment...

Drug transport from an emulsion to the skin

Upon application of the emulsion, the drug delivery process occurs in a series of steps. When the emulsion is applied to the skin, it first releases the drug from the formulation, then the drug partitions into the skin surface, and finally the drug diffuses through the skin surface into the underlying tissues. While the inherent physicochemical properties of the drug molecules are of utmost importance in the delivery process, the choice of excipients used as delivery vehicles can also...

Metereddose inhalers

Holding Chamber

The pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI or MDI) is the most commonly used inhaler, and is an inexpensive, quick and convenient way to take asthma medicine, and the device may also be used in conjunction with a spacer. The MDI, often simply called an inhaler, is a small device incorporating a pressurized canister that contains aerosol medicine to be inhaled. Many asthma medications are taken with an inhaler. Every day more than 500 million patents in the world carry easy-to-use MDI devices to...

Nicotine MNP product

Nicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants, predominantly in tobacco. It functions as an antiherbivore chemical, being a potent neurotoxin with particular specificity to insects. In low concentrations (an average cigarette yields about 1 mg of absorbed nicotine), the substance acts as a stimulant in mammals and is one of the main factors responsible for the dependence-forming properties of tobacco smoking. The pharmacologic and behavioral characteristics that determine...