How To Develop Emotional Intelligence
The literature on links between affect-related traits and creativity is informed mainly by empirical work based on trait emotional intelligence and divergent thinking. The studies conducted so far have generally found no overall correlation between global trait emotional intelligence scores and divergent thinking. However, this null correlation may conceal different relationships between divergent thinking and the separate factors underlying global trait emotional intelligence. In a recent study, Maria Jose Sanchez-Ruiz, Daniel Hernandez-Torrano, Juan Carlos Perez-Gonzalez, and K. V. Petrides found certain trait EI factors such as sociability (i.e., assertiveness, emotion management, and social awareness) to be positively related to divergent thinking, while others such as self-control (i.e., emotion control, impulsiveness, and stress management) were related negatively to it. The latter finding is consistent with positive correlations found elsewhere between divergent thinking...
One interesting path for future style research can be inspired by research on compound traits, or emergent traits, which has a long history in research on personality. Such traits, like integrity, emotional intelligence, managerial potential and more, are typically measured by criterion referenced tests that purport to measure specific behaviors in applied settings. Common for several such traits is that they are factorially complex and typically related to Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. In a related way, styles may be seen as describing specific, cognitive phenomena that mediate profiles of personality traits and or abilities. Consequently, to the extent that style theories can be placed in a conceptual space with personality and ability constructs and shown to have some kind of advantage beyond the traits that they originate from, it would further validate style as a useful construct in psychology. A clarification of such ideas would also explain further the...
The transfer of emotion from culture to the individual has led to a paradoxical dimming of awareness of the emotions, and to a decline of the emotional self. Once again this is because emotional experience must be patterned at the level of culture before it can become stable and authentic, and also because the emotions have become a transient patchwork display that merely facilitates manipulation of the outside world. Thus, even though emotion is now more interiorized, it is also more alien and more external to the self. One important mental health consequence has been that emotional self-awareness no longer functions effectively as a psychic defense mechanism. Without sufficient emotional consciousness or emotional intelligence, moderns are impelled to cope by means of identifications with externalities contained in the material world, and in particular the offerings, signals, and signs of consumer society.
Although more limited in number, many studies do lend greater understanding about the creativity of dance artists and how they are influenced by the environments that surround them. Gregory Feist, a major figure in the creativity research field, noted that dancers, as well as other performing artists, scored significantly higher than control subjects on anxiety, guilt, and hypochondriasis, and that dancers were more achievement-oriented. Jane Piirto suggested that dancers tend to suffer physical injuries and psychological disorders, such as eating disorders, low self-esteem, and self-image distortions and that their personalities were more akin to those of athletes (discipline, high-standards, perfectionism kinesthetic, and emotional intelligence). PaulaThomson, E. B. Keehn, and Thomas Gumpel found that dancers and choreographers were
At first, Gardner named seven intelligences, then later added '1-1 2' more. Although several other scholars and educators have suggested various other intelligences, such as spiritual intelligence or emotional intelligence, Gardner limits the intelligences satisfying the above criteria to the following list
In general, differences in personality traits across domains have been repeatedly evidenced in previous research. Specifically, artists have shown higher levels of emotional expressiveness and have shown to be more sensitive to their feelings than scientists. Also, artists tend to experience more negative affect, be more impulsive, and have shown lower levels of emotional control than scientists. In terms also of the relationship between affect and creativity, the results from the study by Sanchez-Ruiz et al. show that, when considering domain in the analyses, the negative relationship between divergent thinking performance and the trait emotional intelligence factor of self-control (which includes the stress management facet) is only true for artists but not for technical and natural scientists, and social scientists.
There is evidence that relationships between creativity and affect-related states vary across criteria of creativity. Not only the relationships between creativity and stress may differ according to the creativity criteria, but within one criterion, such as divergent thinking, variation may come from the different subscales. Several studies have shown that different aspects of divergent thinking, such as fluency and originality demonstrate different patterns of relationships with personality traits and with trait emotional intelligence. For example, when examining the link between divergent thinking aspects and overall valence of psychological states, positively valenced states were related to idea quantity (fluency), but not to idea
Even within the United States, many people have started viewing as important not only the cognitive aspects but also the emotional aspects of intelligence. Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2000, p. 396) defined emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in the self and others. There is good evidence for the existence of some kind of emotional intelligence (Ciarrochi, Forgas, & Mayer, 2001 Mayer
The publication of the book Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman in 1995 led to the sudden popularisation of the earlier proposal for the concept of emotional intelligence by Salovey and Mayer (1990), which in turn was based on earlier proposals such as Gardner's (1983) concept of social intelligence. The popularisation has led to the assessment and teaching of emotional skills in the workplace and in schools, while academically it has remained surrounded by controversy. The main arguments against the proposal (e.g., Davies, Stankov, & Roberts, 1998 Roberts, Zeidner, & Matthews, 2001) are that there is nothing unique in the proposal that is not already covered by existing approaches to personality theory and existing approaches to intelligence. Our own view is that the term emotional intelligence is one that is best avoided because of its value-laden and elitist implications, but that there clearly are variations in emotional skills that should not be ignored. The development of...
Having defined the key concepts under review, an overview of the two existing lines of research on the link between creativity and affect is provided below. As mentioned earlier, these are the study of emotion-related personality traits in relation to creativity and the role of subjective states in creative performance. Specifically, the focus on trait emotional intelligence and divergent thinking. After a review of the literature on valenced subjective states, research involving stress state dimensions is presented.
Lastly, empirical research on creativity and states infrequently explore the creativity-stress association at the state level, whilst considering the trait level as well. Exploring trait emotional intelligence in relation to creativity provides insight into the influence of emotional-based self-perceptions and dispositions on creative performance. Considering trait emotional intelligence (and the effects of general personality factors) and subjective state effects in the same research design can also be helpful when the aim is to determine the predictability of the latter (e.g., stress state) controlling for the influence of the former (e.g., self-control). Future research may therefore need to explore the creativity-affect association at the state level, considering the trait level as well, through a multidimensional conceptualization of states and the trait emotional intelligence framework, respectively.
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