Islet Nerves

The pancreatic islets are richly innervated by the autonomic nerves (see Fig. 78-1).1516 These nerves are postganglionic sympathetic nerves with their nerve cell bodies in the celiac ganglion, and postganglionic parasympathetic nerves with their nerve cell bodies in intrapancreatic ganglia. Preganglionically, the nerve impulses pass through the splanchnic and vagus nerves, respectively. The nerves primarily innervate the vessels, but some fibers also enter into the islets and terminate in close proximity to the islet endocrine cells. Electrical activation of the nerves has been shown to exert profound influences on insulin and glucagon secretion. Thus, activation of the sympathetic nerves inhibits insulin but stimulates glucagon secretion, whereas activation of the vagus nerves stimulates both insulin and glucagon secretion. Besides the classic neurotransmitters norepinephrine and acetylcholine, the islet nerves have also been shown to harbor various neuropeptides (see Table 78-1). A large number of studies have examined the role of these neurotransmitters in pancreatic islet physiology.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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