Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary


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AbInitio Calculations

Ab initio electronic structure calculations are dominated by density functional theory (DFT). They have revolutionized that field. The subject is reviewed in this volume by Jones (see Chap. 8), one of the pioneers in the field. But DFT is a ground-state theory and therefore it is of little surprise that it fails, in particular for strongly correlated systems, when low-energy excitations are calculated from it. The failure is inherent and independent of any approximations which are made for the potential in the Kohn-Sham equation. This is seen by considering the simplest possible system of strongly correlated electrons, i.e., two electrons in two orbitals. As seen below, this model also shows a characteristic feature of strong correlations, namely the appearance of new low-energy scales. In weakly correlated systems the characteristic energy scale is given by the Fermi energy eF, or alternatively, by the electronic hopping matrix elements tj between neighboring sites i and j. Strong...

The Auger Process And Auger Electron Spectroscopy

Figure 1 shows the processes of Auger emission and fluorescence schematically. The frequency with which one of them will occur relative to the other depends on the particular element but as a rule of thumb, it can be remembered that elements with low atomic numbers tend to favor the Auger process, whereas those with high atomic numbers favor fluorescence. The Auger electrons that are emitted have energies that are characteristic of the element from which they came. Therefore, if they can be detected they will provide a method of chemical analysis. Furthermore, since the electrons that arise from such a process are going to be of low energy, those that do escape from the

Systems with Heavy Quasiparticles

A sizeable number of intermetallic compounds have a high density of fermionic low-energy excitations. Experiments show that their low-temperature thermodynamic properties strongly resemble those of ordinary metals but with a large quasiparticle mass. The latter can become as large as a meson or even proton mass. It is a consequence of the low-energy scales which strong electron correlations create. Systems with heavy quasiparticles involve 4f or 5f electrons, in one case, i.e., LiV2O4 even 3d electrons. Much studied examples are CeAl3, CeRu2Si2, CeCu2Si2 or Yb3As4 with 4 f electrons and UPt3, UBe13 and UPd2Al3 with 5 f electrons. After the discovery of the heavy quasiparticles 34 it was generally believed that the Kondo effect is responsible for those low-energy excitations. Indeed, breaking up a Kondo singlet formed between a 4f electron, e.g., of Ce, with the conduction electrons requires a small amount of energy only, i.e., of the order of a few meV. However, in the meantime we...

Energy expenditure during exercise

The total energy expenditure (TEE) of an adult person averages 10000-13000kJ 24h. Individuals with physically very demanding occupations may reach values of 17000-19000kJ 24h. The TEE is made up of three components the BMR, the dietary-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and the activity-dependent energy expenditure (Table 1.2. i). The BMR is normally the largest component of TEE, averaging 7000-8200 kJ 24 h in men and 5800-6200 kJ 24 h in women. The DIT, which is defined as the extra energy consumption resulting from a meal, normally accounts for one tenth of the TEE. DIT is largest after a protein meal, where it amounts to 18-25 of the energy contained in the meal, but considerably smaller for meals containing carbohydrates (4-7 ) and fat (2-4 ) 24 . The remaining part of the TEE is the activity-dependent energy expenditure (AEE), which can be calculated based on the 19.7 and 21.2 kJ of energy released for each liter of oxygen consumed during fat and carbohydrate oxidation, respectively...

Composite Operator and Projection Techniques

One way of dealing with strongly correlated electrons is to limit the operator or Liouville space within which one wants to describe the many-body system. Stated differently, among all possible degrees of freedom of the system only those are kept, which are considered to be the most important ones. The composite operator method developed by Mancini and Avella 47 and expanded continuously 48-50 (see Chap. 3.7) and the projection operator method (see, e.g., 2 ) share this goal. They differ in the way the relevant part of the operator space is chosen. The composite operator method starts from the equation of motion for the single particle Green's function, which generates a new Green's function, this time for composite operators instead of a single electron operator. This procedure is repeated until the sequence of Green's function is terminated at some stage. The projection operator method selects the relevant operator space simply by specifying the microscopic processes which one wants...

Geometry effects of osteoporosis on cancellous bone

Osteoporosis is a disorder in which total bone mass is reduced yet the quality of the bone is normal. If a microsection of bone were to be biochemically analyzed, it would demonstrate a normal ratio of osteoid to mineral. Though total bone mass is affected, there is a predisposition to loss of the horizontal trabeculae 4 . This leads to decreased interconnectivity of the internal scaffolding of the vertebral body (Fig. 1b). Without the support of crossing horizontal members, unsupported vertical beams of bone easily succumb to minor, normally subcatastrophic, loads. Clinically, this leads to crush of the cancellous bone within the vertebral body, recognizable as an osteoporotic compression fracture, which may occur with low-energy maneuvers such as picking up a bag of groceries.

The Structure of the DRAG2 Model

Monthly data on these two types of distances are obtained using the following information. Firstly, source information is based on fuel sales of gas and diesel expressed in litres, which are then associated with energy efficiency of vehicles using these fuels. In Quebec, automobiles consume approximately 90 of gas and diesel is used in a similar proportion by trucks. Vehicle energy efficiency, expressed in litres per 100 kilometres, has improved considerably over the period in the model. The influence of Quebec's cold winters was also taken into account, since it dramatically reduces engine efficiency. Lastly, changes in types of vehicles on the road were considered. The model tries to explain monthly changes in distances travelled using a number of independent variables that pertain to transportation costs, vehicles on the road, weather conditions, legislation in effect, etc.

Choice of kilovoltagedualenergy subtraction

Dual-energy digital subtraction can be used to overcome the problem of pathology obscured by overlying bones. In this technique, high- and low-energy images are acquired less than 200 ms apart during the same breath-hold. The low-energy image is subtracted from the standard high-kVp image to produce bone and soft-tissue images. Three images are presented for viewing, similar to those shown opposite. Typically, there is up to 80 kVp separating the exposures.

Particlehole Asymmetry in Doped Mott Insulators

At half filling (one electron per lattice site) there are no holes, and thus no conduction in the large U Hubbard model of (2.5) at T 0. This is the Mott insulating state whose low-energy physics is described by the antiferromagnetic S 1 2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian on a square lattice. It is by now very well established that the undoped parent compounds of the high Tc superconductors are antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulators (actually charge transfer insulators, but that distinction is not important for our present purposes). where n(r) is the local electron density and x(r) is the corresponding local hole doping. (At finite temperatures, the integration would be cut off by a Fermi function in the integrand. In the T 0 case discussed here, we get a hard cutoff at the chemical potential a 0). This sum rule just implies that the probability of extracting an electron from the system at point r is proportional to the local density. The above two sum rules also lead to an obvious...

Surfactant Surfactant Interactions in Liquid Media

When surfactant molecules are dissolved in liquid media in addition to the surfactant head-head (H-H), tail-tail (T-T), and head-tail (H-T) interactions, also the solvent solvent (S-S), solvent head group (S-H), and the solvent tail (S-T) interactions must be considered to rationalize the surfactant state in solution and its self-assembling. The tangled interplay of these interactions could lead to a very small solubility of the surfactant in some solvent media due to H-H and or T-T interactions overwhelming S-H and or S-T interactions or to the formation of a rich variety of different supramolecular aggregates in dynamic equilibrium with monomers due to the predominance of S-S and S-H or H-H interactions. Moreover, in the frequent presence of additional components, the number of possible interactions increases steeply making even more complex the theoretical treatment of these systems but at the same time opening the door to a wider spectrum of accessible structures and dynamics....

Hospitalized or box rest

Provided that good-quality hay is available it may be best to cut out concentrate foods altogether. The requirement for energy is obviously diminished to below a normal maintenance level and some horses will actually refuse concentrates if they are offered. If the hay is not of sufficient quality to feed alone, a diet specially produced for the invalid horse should be used. This will have a low energy level but still contain adequate quantities of vitamins and minerals, etc. Succulent foodstuffs such as roots, apples or cut grass will be much appreciated by the horse on box rest.

Drug Use Changes the Activity of the Brain

Figure 5-5 More and more drug taking changes more and more of the brain. Slices of brain show regions of high glucose utilization by the dark color. Glucose utilization, or energy consumption, by the brain increased in specific areas (that are identified) after chronic cocaine administration. See text for more details. Caud caudate nucleus, Put putamen, NAcS nucleus accumbens shell, NAcC nucleus accumbens core. These brain regions are important in drug addiction. (From L.J. Porrino, H.R. Smith, M.A. Nader and T.J. Beveridge. The Effects of Cocaine A Shifting Target over the Course of Addiction. Prog in Neuropsychopharmacol and Biol Psychiat, 31 1593-1600. Copyright 2007 ), with permission from Elsevier.) Figure 5-5 More and more drug taking changes more and more of the brain. Slices of brain show regions of high glucose utilization by the dark color. Glucose utilization, or energy consumption, by the brain increased in specific areas (that are identified) after chronic cocaine...

Organization of Presentations

The middle then discusses the topic in a logical fashion. If the topic is a process, such as the evolution of a Hawaiian volcano (represented in Figure 3-2),3 a logical strategy would be chronological. If the topic is an event, such as the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Figure 3-3,4 a logical strategy would be spatial the flows of lava down the mountain and the plume of smoke and ash into the atmosphere. If the topic is a system, such as the solar power plant in Figure 3-4,5 then a logical strategy would be the flow of energy through the system. Figure 3-4. Solar One Power Plant located near Barstow, California.5 In explaining the operation of this plant in a presentation, a logical strategy would be to follow the flow of energy through the system Sunlight strikes the mirrors and reflects onto the receiver mounted on top of the tower. This radiant energy is converted to heat in a transfer fluid that flows to a turbine to produce electrical energy. Figure 3-4. Solar One Power Plant...

Practical Aspects Of Radioligandbinding Studies

The majority of binding studies estimate the amount of binding by the separation of bound from free ligand, using either centrifugation or filtration, followed by measurement of the quantity bound. The separation stage, however, can be avoided in scintillation proximity assays (SPAs). These assays are applicable to ligands containing radioisotopes (e.g., tritium) that produce low-energy P-particles that travel only a very short distance (less than 10 m) in aqueous solution. In one form of SPA, the receptor preparation is immobilized on microbeads containing scintillant molecules. The scintillant molecules are able to detect P-radiation emanating from radioligand bound to receptors located on the bead surface (and thus in close proximity) but will not respond to radiation from the relatively remote radioligand molecules free in the aqueous solution. For this technique to work, it must be possible to couple the receptor preparation to the bead in a way that does not interfere with the...

Momentum Distribution

We next describe the calculation of the momentum distribution nk. This gives very useful insights into the low-energy excitations of the system (nodal quasiparticles), and also serves to illustrate important technical points in Gutzwiller approximation calculations. Before plunging into technical details, let us explain how a ground state correlation function like nk can give information about low-energy excitations. Recall that nk is the energy integral of the spectral function A(k,rn) over the occupied states. Thus, gapless quasiparticles at a momentum kF lead to sharp discontinuities in nk at T 0. The magnitude of the jump discontinuity is the quasiparticle spectral weight Z of these low-energy excitations. In a d-wave superconductor, the superconducting gap vanishes along the zone diagonals in the Brillouin zone (kx ky) and leads to four nodes in the excitation spectrum. We will use the location and magnitude of the singularities in nk to learn about the doping dependence of the...

Progression to modern treatments

For a non-durable (to washing) water-repellent finish a simple process of molten wax, applied via an engraved copper roller with doctor blade was used. Saturated paraffin wax from the higher distillation fractions of petroleum, with sufficiently high melting point, was heated with closed coil steam pipes in a trough to exceed its melting point. In this process the half-submerged, heated engraved copper roller revolved with the pressure roller nip (Fig. 8.1), transferring the wax to the fabric which simply cools to a dry finish. Drying oils (possibly synthetic or natural) for improved durability, and oil-soluble antimicrobial agents (such as pentachlorophenyl laurate - PCPL) have been used as compatible additives for such a system for application to rain-resistant cloaks or tentage. This might seem a very basic and antiquated arrangement, but its virtues are extremely low energy usage (no water or solvent to dry off) and being environmentally friendly, with no vapours or effluent to...

Transition State Model OsCatalyzed Asymmetric Dihydroxylation AD

The Sharpless AD reaction is an almost ideal test case for a Q2MM study. The selectivity is determined in one well-defined step, which has been well characterized by a combination of high-level QM methods and isotope studies (49). Experimentally, the reaction is not overly sensitive to reaction conditions, tolerating a wide range of solvents, from toluene to water alcohol mixtures (50). Selectivity data are available in the literature for a wide range of ligand-substrate combinations. Transition-state structures were obtained at the B3LYP level for 59 small model structures. Hessians and CHelpG data for three of the structures and relative energies of several distorted structures were also included in the parameterization, but no experimental data were employed. The final force field was tested on a range of substrates by extensive conformational searches for all low-energy reaction paths. The selectivities could then be calculated from the Boltzmann populations of diastereomeric...

Radiation and plasma surface treatments

A more sophisticated phenomenon possible with plasma treatment is the transformation of the chemical character of fibre surfaces. Depending on the gases introduced into the autoclave, which become ionised in the charged low-pressure environment, fibre surfaces can be improved by virtue of new functionalities dramatic wettability improvement, via surface oxidation, is of particular benefit for aramid fibres and other oleophobic or low-energy surface synthetics. Examples of the introduction of new functional elements and groups are fluorine, for inherent oil and water resistance, and carboxyl groups that appear to be formed when incorporating carbon dioxide the importance of this latter capability is in chemical linking of applied protective finishes onto otherwise fairly inert surfaces This might be by direct covalent bonding of a suitably designed finishing agent, or via a chemical cross-linking system to form High-performance polyolefin fibres, such as high-density polyethylene...

Distribution of applied treatments

Be useful emulsifiers or wetting agents in water-resistant finishing of protective wear, but not for oil-repellent finishes, where the fatty acid residue would detrimentally effect performance. The dispersion of active products in a protective finish at the padding stage will invariably cause pad liquors to cling to hydrophobic fabrics at the boundary between two adjacent filaments, or at intersections of yarns in the fabric, leading to higher concentration of solids in those locations (Fig. 8.3). Deposits can also be spasmodically placed along the length of the filaments due to the low-energy fibre surface a second impregnation treatment would be beneficial in rectifying such irregular deposition of solids. Migration inhibitors for aqueous treatment liquors consist of water-soluble polymers and gums that are of low viscosity this allows a network of a sufficiently high concentration of polymer chains to inhibit the movement of dispersed solids (on drying) whilst retaining low...

Acohk Zkvk and Ainck no C n1k 232

On the unoccupied side, the interesting low-energy sum rule is obtained by putting an upper cutoff Q, where U Q t,J. This ensures that only projected states in the lower Hubbard band contribute to the sum rule. Following Sect. 2.3 and using Gutzwiller approximation, we get fQ Acoh(k, ) Zkuk and fQ Ainc(k,rn) 2gstJ2k'k'' fk+k'-k'' vk' k uk'vk'Uk vk U gt(1 x)J2k' fk'vk U. We see that the incoherent contribution to the sum rule is O(t U). Using the nonnegativity of spectral functions, we reach the very interesting conclusion that Ainc(k, ) O(xt U) for 0. The unoccupied low-energy sum rule is much smaller than the occupied part, but it is mainly dominated by the coherent contributions. This also shows that the particle-hole asymmetry in the spectral weight comes chiefly from the incoherent part of the spectral function. Figure 2.8 shows the spectral function sum rules for two different dopings x 0.15 and x 0.35 along the zone diagonal. On the occupied side, the sum rule is dominated by...

Clusters and Monolayer H2O on NaCl 001

Ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions are required for the use of surface-sensitive techniques such as low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and helium atom scattering (HAS) that can explore the architecture of the water adlayer on NaCl (001). The low water vapor pressures needed, less than about 10-8 mbar, in turn demand temperatures below - 160 C 36 . Consequently, only solid-like adlayers are explored. Folsch et al. 50 have used LEED to study the water structure on the NaCl (001) surface. The scattering pattern they observed was consistent with an adlayer structure of a well ordered icelike c(2 x 4) bilayer. This structure is similar to molecularly thin ordinary Ih ice, except that the adsorbed bilayer is slightly distorted to achieve compatibility with the NaCl (001) lattice. This adlayer then contains two types of water molecules. The first is in the bottom half of the layer, where the electronegative oxygen atoms in the water molecules are electrostatically attracted to Na+ ions on...

Disorder and Strong Correlations

The insensitivity of the cuprates to disorder stems in part from the fact that the dopants are far from the CuO2 planes and also from the short coherence length. However, we point out here that there is another, more profound reason for the robustness of the cuprates against disorder. We present below a generalization of the Gutzwiller approximation to the inhomogeneous system to obtain the combined effects of strong correlation (projection) and disorder. We find the remarkable result that correlations play a central role in making the superconducting state and its low-energy excitations robust against disorder. The nodal quasiparticles, which are the low-energy electronic excitations, are found to be protected against disorder leading to characteristic signatures that are confirmed in scanning tunneling spectroscopy 67-71 and angle-resolved photoemission 41,42,72,73 experiments. Fig. 2.11 DOS N(tw) for various impurity concentrations 35 . The results in panel (a) include both strong...

Types of Lamps Useful in Horse Facilities

incandesces and releases visible light. Incandescent bulbs have a low initial cost but are the most expensive to operate for the same level of light. Incandescent lamps have by far the shortest life and are the least energy efficient of the lamps discussed here. A 100-watt incandescent bulb only radiates 10 of its electric energy input as light over 70 is radiated as heat in the infrared spectrum. Light output decreases to 80 to 90 of its initial value as it reaches it rated life. Incandescent light color is usually yellowish white, but lamps with different color outputs are available. Table 11.3. Light Source Wattage, Lifespan, Energy Efficiency, and Some Advantages and Disadvantages'1 Table 11.3. Light Source Wattage, Lifespan, Energy Efficiency, and Some Advantages and Disadvantages'1 High energy efficiency High energy efficiency Highest energy efficiency

Lighting 143 Table 114 Typical Applications of Light Sources in Horse Facilities

A quartz-halogen bulb is a type of incandescent bulb that has the tungsten metal filament in a halogen gas-sealed quartz bulb (Fig. 11.8). Halogen bulbs are slightly more energy efficient and have longer life than incandescent bulbs. A more noticeable advantage is that quartz-halogen bulbs produce a whiter light than incandescent, which is helpful where good color recognition is important. During lamp operation the halogen gas combines with tungsten molecules that have evaporated off the filament. The tungsten is redeposited on the filament rather than on the quartz bulb interior, so there is almost no bulb darkening with age as in an incandescent bulb. This halogen regenerative process requires high-temperature operation that also produces the brighter, higher color temperature light. The quartz bulb walls are necessary to withstand this high temperature but suffer from sensitivity to oil and dirt from human skin, which causes premature lamp failure. Figure 11.10. Fluorescent...

Light Quantities And Efficiency

Lumen (lm) is a measure of the amount of light emitted from a lamp and is used to compare different lamps. A lumen is the amount of light that is radiated in a 1-second period as determined in laboratory testing. Lamp efficiency is determined by dividing the lumen output of the lamp by the electrical energy it consumes in watts (W). Footcandle (fc) is the amount of light striking a working surface where illumination is needed. For light in general, 1 fc 1 lm ft2. For many energy-efficient light sources, such as fluorescent and HID lamps, a ballast energy use must also be included in the efficiency rating. The ballast is used to control the flow of electricity to the gas-filled tube that helps prevent premature burnout.

The Focus Of Rehabilitation

The focus of rehabilitation in the aging population should consist of the following (1) increasing, restoring, or maintaining range of motion, physical strength, flexibility, coordination, balance, and endurance (2) recommending adaptations to make the home accessible and safe (3) teaching positioning, transfers, and walking skills to promote maximum function and independence within an individual's capability (4) increasing overall fitness through exercise programs (5) preventing further decline in functional abilities through education, energy conservation techniques, joint protection, and use of assistive devices to promote independence and finally, (6) improving sensation, and joint proprioception, and reducing pain.

Approaches for Walking

The neurorehabilitation team may not place as high a value on ambulation as the patient and family does. The goal of treatment may be safe and energy-efficient mobility, which could mean using a wheelchair or incorporating as-sistive devices to walk short distances in the home. Most disabled patients reach the same

Multiphase heat and mass transfer model

Gibson built on Whitaker's theory of coupled heat and mass transfer through porous media to derive a set of equations modeling heat and mass transfer through textile materials as hygroscopic porous media.2,26 Gibson applies continuity, linear momentum conservation, and energy conservation equations to the fabric as a three-phase system consisting of a solid phase with a concentration of bound water, a free liquid water phase, and a gas phase of water vapor in air (Fig. 11.2). This model treats heat transfer in three dimensions, accounting for conduction by all phases, convection by the gas and liquid phases, and transformations among the phases. Gibson writes the thermal energy balance equation as

Modeling thermal degradation in fabrics

Accounting for degradation in the solid material produces an additional term in the energy conservation equation. If m0 is the initial mass of the material element, then its mass at time t is p(t)m0. The rate of heat consumption for the vaporization of polymer material in this element during its degradation can be expressed as AHm0 (Dp Dt), where AH is the heat of vaporization. Recasting this relation for a unit volume results in the following term for the energy equation of the fabric layer

Approaches To Retraining Ambulation

One of the foremost goals of the hemiparetic or paraparetic patient is to achieve independent ambulation. Patients who require more than minimal assistance to walk a short distance, 10 to 15 feet, by the end of their acute hospitalization have the most common disability that leads to transfer to an inpatient rehabilitation program. The physical therapist develops strategies to improve ambulation, but the entire team reinforces techniques for head and trunk control, sitting and standing balance, transfers, and a safe and energy-efficient reciprocal pattern for gait. The most appropriate targets for gait interventions are still uncertain. Most work has centered upon balance, weight-bearing, leg symmetry in swing and stance times, normalizing strength, and improving motor control.27

Life cycles of disposable and reusable textiles

At medical waste incinerators must be reduced by 74 percent for mercury and 95 percent for dioxin and other toxins in five years from the baselines given in the document. Another way of medical waste disposal is to use landfill, which is very costly. A complete life cycle for disposable medical textiles is shown in Fig. 8.1. The energy consumption in the cycle is shown by arrows indicating how one product is converted to another. In contrast, reusable textiles, which were traditionally made of cotton fiber and currently are made of polyester, can be repeatedly used in healthcare facilities. After each usage, the textiles should be professionally laundered following the CDC's guidelines (CDC, 1997, 2001). When laundered, the used textiles are not only cleaned but also disinfected with bleaching agents such as diluted sodium hypochlorite solution or concentrated hydrogen peroxide solution. Thus, laundering is a very necessary process in the life cycle of reusable textiles. This process...

Costs of disposable and reusable textiles

Nonwoven fabrics for disposable surgical gowns usually are made of meltblown and spunbond polypropylene and polyethylene fibers with dense fiber entanglement. In order to increase waterproofing functions, spunbond meltblown composite nonwoven fabrics and nonwoven laminated with thin plastic films are popular fabric structures. Nonwoven fabrics can prevent almost all possible strike-through of blood and body fluid - a common risk to surgeons in operations. However, excellent barrier properties to liquids make the fabrics non-permeable to air and moisture, and thus uncomfortable to wear, particularly for lengthy operations. The energy consumption and overall cost of manufacturing nonwoven fabrics are lower than those of woven fabrics, in general, because nonwovens are made directly from fibrous webs, similar to paper production, without manufacturing yarns and going through weaving and other processes.

Nonpharmacologic Therapy

Referral to a physical or occupational therapist may be helpful, particularly in patients with functional disabilities. Physical therapy is tailored to the patient and may include assessment of muscle strength, joint stability, and mobility use of heat (especially prior to episodes of increased physical activity) structured exercise regimens and implementation of assistive devices, such as canes, crutches, and walkers. The occupational therapist ensures optimal joint protection and function, energy conservation, and use of splints and other assistive devices.

Neck Back and Myofascial Pain

Recent randomized trials with good designs add to the potential armamentarium of interventions, although all of these results require confirmation by additional trials. For low back pain, osteopathic manual care and standard medical care produce equivalent results 140 bipolar magnets were no better than sham magnets 141 low energy laser treatment 3 times per week for 4 weeks is modestly better than sham treatment 142 40 units of botulinum toxin injected into 5 paralumbar sites is better than placebo for up to 8 weeks of less pain 143 neuromuscular electrical stimulation and TENS for 5 hours per day at 2-day intervals is better than placebo stimulation 144 percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with acupuncturelike needles in the paraspinal muscles reduces the need for opioid analgesics more than sham treatment, TENS, or exercise 145 and facet injections with methylprednisolone are no better than placebo in patients who reported less pain after the facet was injected with local...

Photoelectron Spectra

In low-energy PES, usually termed ultraviolet PES or UPS, far-UV radiation is used for excitation. The most common source for UPS is the helium resonance lamp, which provides radiation with an energy of 21.2 eV and a half-width down to 10 meV (see Section III for further

Deactivation of the PPARaPGC1a Complex during Pathologic Cardiac Hypertrophic Growth

A critical cellular adaptive response to conditions of reduced oxygen availability involves the suppression of cellular energy consumption and production (Fahey and Lister 1989 Hochachka et al. 1996). Under hypoxic conditions, decreased oxygen consumption is achieved in part by increasing glycolysis while down-regulating mitochondrial FAO flux (Abdel-aleem et al. 1998 Rumsey et al. 1999). This metabolic switch, which is similar to that of the pathologically hypertrophied heart, would also reduce the generation of potentially toxic reactive species within the mitochondrion in hypoxic conditions. Recently, studies performed with neonatal cardiac myocytes in culture have shown that the PPARa-mediated activation of M-CPT I is diminished following exposure to hypoxic conditions (Huss et al. 2001). Gel mobility shift studies demonstrated that exposure to hypoxia leads to a reduction in PPARa RXR DNA-binding activity. However, the acute reduction in PPARa RXR activity is not caused by...

Pacing to Terminate Ventricular Fibrillation

During VF, as fibrillatory wavefronts propagate across the surface of a tissue, there are regions of tissue that can still be excited by external stimulation these regions are known as excitable gaps.23'24 The concept of pacing during VF is premised on the use of low-energy pulses to capture the fibrillatory tissue, preferably during the excitable gaps,24-26 and enlargement of the captured region may eventually lead to VF termination. Defib-rillation studies have led to many attempts to design low-energy defibrillation or pacing strategies.23'27-29 These strategies may be categorized as either passive or interactive. The passive paradigm, such as overdrive pacing and antitachycardia pacing, delivers a constant frequency pulse train seeking to capture the rhythm and gain control. Overdrive pacing has been shown to be effective in capturing a small region of the heart 23'28 however, the limited success of this approach to VF termination may be attributable to the instability of VF...

Collision Chamber and Sample Inlet System

If the sample is a conductor, it is brought in direct electrical contact with the sample holder. Metallic indium is often used to provide the necessary electrical and thermal contact between sample and sample holder. This is especially convenient because samples that are small particles can be pressed directly into the indium. If the sample is an insulator, even pressing it into indium does not always prevent charging. In this case, charge compensation can be achieved by using a floodgun to bombard the sample with low energy electrons. Powder samples can be mounted on double-stick tape or pressed into a tablet, similar to the preparation used in infrared spectroscopy. Soluble samples can be dissolved and a drop of the solution brought to the surface of a metallic sample holder and evaporated. The latter method can yield a thin film, which is less sensitive to charging.

Conformation of the Pharmacophore

Most peptides are highly flexible in a conformational manner in aqueous solution, but upon interacting with another biologically relevant molecule they adapt a preferred conformation. Thus, the reduction of conformational freedom may eventually lead to insights regarding the receptor acceptor-bound conformation, and can also result in selective interaction of a ligand with a receptor. Conformationally constrained peptides can provide crucial information about biologically active conformations. A major goal of using conformational constraints is to determine which pep-tide conformation is required for binding to the receptor. Conformational constraint of flexible bioactive peptides can significantly improve potency, selectivity, stability, and bioavailability compared with endogenous peptides. The determination of a biologically active conformation of peptide is a tedious process. However, general strategies have been developed and tested in many laboratories. In many cases, the...

Functional requirements of washable textilebased incontinence products

Increase in the number of washable products available on the market in recent years. An important consideration in the comparison of washable and disposable designs is the relative environmental costs, particularly the disposal (landfill) costs of disposable designs and the energy costs associated with laundering the washables. A recent report on baby diapers concluded that there was no significant difference in environmental impact between three diaper systems (disposables, and washables that were laundered at home or commercially) although the types of impacts did vary (Aum nier and Collins, 2005).

Energy Band Mapping

The quadratic relation between energy and momentum that holds for a free electron is no longer valid in a crystalline solid, where the electron moves under the influence of the periodic lattice potential. The relation between electron energy and electron momentum along certain directions within the Brillouin zone is called the band structure of the solid. Angle-resolved PES is presently the only method that allows an experimental determination of the band dispersion (the relation between energy and momentum) of occupied bands that do not lie close to the Fermi energy. This capability is due to the fact that the photon adds only negligibly to the electron momentum. Because of momentum conservation, the momentum of the created photoelectron ( pPE) is the same as that of the electron in the initial state band (pi ). The simultaneous fulfillment of energy conservation

Investigation of Adsorbates

The first question is usually answered by LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) but for the other two ARPS is the method of choice. Figure 29 shows the result of such a study a dense monolayer of CO on a Ni(110) surface. The layer has p2mg symmetry. Each CO molecule is bound in a bridging position between two neighboring Ni atoms along the 110 direction. The C-terminus points down to the Ni surface. The CO molecules are tilted by (17 2) along the 001 direction in order to avoid the close intermolecular contact along 110 , which would occur if the molecules were oriented perpendicular to the surface. Most of these details resulted from the determination of a Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) is another new method which allows the imaging of surfaces while keeping the element sensitivity typical for PE and Auger spectroscopy. Technically, PEEM is a derivative of low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM), an imaging method in which the electrons backscattered from a low-energy...

The Predicted Optimal Monophasic Shock

Unfortunately, such an ascending waveform is difficult to generate in a way that is both volumetrically and energy efficient with electronic components used in present ICDs. Thus, while an ascending waveform will minimize delivered energy,2'26'47 stored energy might not be minimized. For the ascending waveform, an infinitely long duration does not increase

Issues Relating to Formal and Informal Research on Mood

The solution to this problem would be to take energy ratings over a number of days and to aggregate them into means for each hour (cf. Thayer, Takahashi, & Pauli, 1988). Since immediate situational influences sometimes result in higher energy ratings than usual and sometimes in lower than usual ratings, measures that are aggregated over a number of days would cancel out these onetime-only effects. Thus, the cumulative self-ratings would more reliably measure the endogenous rhythm than a measurement taken on only one occasion.

History Of Nuclear Power

In 1951, the Experimental Breeder Reactor at Arco, Idaho, produced the first commercial nuclear electric power. Between 1948 and 1953, the United States built and tested a submarine reactor at Idaho Falls under the leadership of Admiral H. G. Rickover. The submarine Nautilus went to sea in 1955, powered by a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel. All of the Polaris missile-carrying submarines of the United States use nuclear reactors. In 1956, the first full-scale nuclear fission power plant began to operate at Calder Hall in northwestern England. Only after the passage of the 1957 U.S. Price-Anderson Act, limiting nuclear liability in the event of an accident, did the U.S. industry agree to begin using atomic energy for commercial generation of electricity. The first U.S. commercial nuclear plant opened in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, in 1957. Also in 1957, the United Nations established the International Atomic Energy Agency to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear power. In...

Equity And Nuclear Risks

Chological studies also reveal that, in their risk evaluations, laypeople are often more averse to a small, inequitably distributed societal risk than to a larger, equitably distributed risk. In general, both deontological and utilitarian ethical theorists argue that people ought not be discriminated against merely because they are in a different location in space and time. For example, Parfit argues that temporal differences are not a morally relevant basis for discounting future costs and thus discriminating against future generations with respect to risks such as radiation. He and others maintain that a risk imposition is less acceptable to the degree that it imposes costs on future persons but awards benefits to present persons. Commercial nuclear fission, for example, benefits mainly present generations, whereas its risks and costs also will be borne by members of future generations who may be affected by long-lived nuclear wastes (D. Parfit, 1983. Energy policy and the further...

Radiation protection

In practice, the target material required by the EC standards is molybdenum. This must be incorporated into specially dedicated equipment. The molybdenum target produces a very narrow band of low-energy radiation, particularly when used with a 0.03-mm molybdenum filter. This gives high-contrast films but means a relatively high radiation dose to the woman. In some units, it is possible to change the molybdenum filter to a 0.5-mm aluminium equivalent filter. The beam then simulates that produced by a tungsten target. A tungsten target with a 3-mm aluminium filter gives a narrow beam spectrum but at higher energy levels than from a molybdenum target. Contrast is reduced but radiation dose is lower than with a molybdenum target. Another advantage is that penetration of dense breasts is better. Other filtration material, e.g. rhodium, is available in some equipment for dense breasts.

Toward Ecological Modernity

On the subject of the relationship between religion and environmental salvation, it is interesting that a number of visionary environmentalists have referred to the Amish answer. As one learns about the religion of the Amish, one cannot avoid the conclusion that it lends itself to a system that, from an environmental standpoint, is far superior to that of the modern Western world.82 In fact, no group of people is so environmentally friendly. Their per capita energy consumption is extremely low by comparison to that of modern consumers. With the exception of minor manure runoff and a small amount of diesel generator fumes, they cause very little pollution. The Amish religion and philosophy of life encourage people to reject consumerism and to turn away from unnecessary technological advances. By its design, their culture creates conservationists who value thriftiness, frugality, and moderation. To waste is a shameful activity. This is opposite to our dominant culture, which does almost...

Molecular Structures And Spin States Of Mph32Cl M Rh and Ir

All computational methods applied here agree that both trans-la (TCl) and cis-la (TPH3) structures exist as discrete minima in singlet states (Fig. 1), and that there are no additional minima (YCl, etc.) of low energy on the singlet potential energy surface for Rh(PH3)2Cl. The singlet cis-trans enthalpy difference is 10-12 kcal mol from the DFT methods, smaller than that obtained from ab initio perturbation theory (14-16 kcal mol) with the most accurate MO-based model used (CCSD(T)), the cis-trans enthalpy difference is 8.0 kcal mol (Table 1). The trans-la structures formally attain the electronic configuration dxy(2)dxz(2)dyz(2)

Cardioversion Pain Reduction

It appears that the pain of a defibrillation shock could be significantly reduced. This would be beneficial for making atrial cardioversion more acceptable, thus reducing the false shocks delivered to the ventricle. But, besides that, the actual ventricular-delivered shock could be made much more tolerable. Shock pain appears to be primarily (but not exclusively) due to the peak voltage of the shock.67 This inspired the testing of a plateau or flat-topped waveform, which has been shown to increase the energy tolerance by a factor of nearly 4 1, at least in low-energy shocks.68 The plateau waveforms are predicted to have low DFTs based on their modeled membrane response, as seen in Fig. 5. These energy efficiency predictions have been confirmed for cardioversion whether performed externally69-71 or internally.72-74

ExpectancySeeking System

Since brain DA activation is a common ingredient in practically all forms of drug addiction (Wise, 2002), investigators will need to worry whether neurotensin agonists may also be addictive. However, considering the anticipated mild effect that neurotensin agonists will probably have on this appetitive system, including complex mixtures of antagonistic and agonistic effects at the terminal fields in the nucleus accumbens and indirect agonistic effects at the DA cell bodies (Legault et al., 2002), neurotensin agonists may help to stabilize psychomotor arousal and sensitization in such a way as to reduce addictive urges at least in the presence of a therapeutic environment (Berod and Rostene, 2002). Also, considering the importance of DA for sustaining psychic energy, neurotensin receptor stimulants may help counteract mild depressive episodes and low energy without promoting addictive urges.

Therapy Efficacy and Failure Modes

ICDs are the practical embodiment of many aspects of electrotherapy. They combine low-energy pacing stimulation and high-energy countershock therapy in the treatment of VF and VT. The ICD has provided successful therapy for the reduction of sudden cardiac death in a number of different patient populations.20'24'26 It was not obvious that implanted

Role in providing calories and in promoting satiety

The role of protein in body weight regulation, in comparison with other macronu-trients, is considered to consist of several often-related but different aspects satiety, thermogenesis, metabolic energy efficiency and body composition. As stated, protein appears to increase satiety and therefore helps to sustain reduced-energy-intake diets.

Therapy Efficacy Defibrillation

The first pectoral-endocardial ICD system delivered successful defibrillation therapy in the ambulatory setting for 99 of the detected spontaneous fibrillation episodes.27 The high rate of successful defibrillation has been maintained across the different patient populations, including the typical ICD patient population, comprising both primary and secondary prevention patients.28 Although the overall efficacy of defibrillation by ICDs is high, reviewing ICD recordings shows that the ability to provide multiple shocks in an episode of VF is of vital importance for overall defibrillation efficacy. For example, in the PainFREE Rx II trial the first defibrillation shock was set to 10 J more than the defibrillation threshold measured at implant. This shock energy succeeded in 87 of the first shocks for VF.29 The subsequent shocks were at the full output capability of the device an example of a multiple-shock episode is shown in Fig. 3. None of the episodes where the first shock failed...

Noninvasive scintigraphic techniques

Scintigraphic techniques can be used for in vivo measurements of the dose delivered to animal and human lungs. These techniques include rectilinear scanners, two-dimensional planar gamma scintigraphy and three-dimensional imaging methods, single photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography. By design, both planar and single photon emission computed tomography employ low-energy gamma emitters, usually 99m-technetium. On the other hand, positron emission tomography utilizes isotopes of basic biological molecules such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, fluorine, and neon, which permit functional imaging as

Therapy Efficacy Antitachycardia Pacing

The efficacy of ATP for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (MVT), the predominant rhythm treated by ICDs, is the same as low-energy cardioversion.46 In recent large studies, ATP efficacy for MVT was approximately 90 .35'47 The rate of ATP failures that result in acceleration of the rhythm is related to ATP aggressiveness, the amount by which the tachycardia is overdriven.44 In studies using predominantly burst pacing (single-cycle length stimulation trains) at 88 of the tachycardia cycle length, acceleration ranged from 2 to 3 of treated episodes.

Fab2Mediated Neutralization of Anaphylatoxins

Molecular modeling of C3a Fab binding sites. Tentative acceptor site within the constant region of Fab fragment (arrow) for an N-terminal domain of C3a (molecule to the right), based on the protonation state of both molecules and low-energy grid search as implemented in respective molecular modeling software programs. Figure 1. Molecular modeling of C3a Fab binding sites. Tentative acceptor site within the constant region of Fab fragment (arrow) for an N-terminal domain of C3a (molecule to the right), based on the protonation state of both molecules and low-energy grid search as implemented in respective molecular modeling software programs.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

General conditioning exercises and energy conservation techniques may improve daily functioning in sedentary patients. The syndrome has been associated with neurally mediated hypotension in some instances, which can respond to sodium loading,194 but a randomized trial of fludrocortisone did not alter the course of the disease.195 Comorbid psychiatric conditions may relieve these symptoms, but may not alter the somatic complaints. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has helped some patients and antidepressant medications may lessen the cost of care within 6 months.193 Impaired working memory and attention on effortful tasks is common196 and may respond to cognitive remediation strategies. A systematic review of the literature concluded that graded exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy are the most promising interventions.197

Forearm Exercise Testing

In the nonfasting individual, the energy requirements of skeletal muscle are met by the metabolism of either carbohydrate (e.g., glycogen, glucose) or lipid (e.g., free fatty acids). The principal source of carbohydrate for skeletal muscle metabolism is intracellular glycogen, which is ' formed from blood glucose, via glycogenesis, and stored within the myocyte. When energy is required, glycogen is hydrolyzed to glucose (glycogenolysis) and then to pyruvate (glycolysis). In addition to pyruvate, glycolysis also generates ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (NADH) (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD + ). Under aerobic conditions, pyruvate is subsequently metabolized to acetyl-CoA. The latter compound enters the Krebs' (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, yielding further molecules of ATP and NADH, as well as flavin adenine dinucleotide hydrogen (FADH 2 ). The reducing equivalents generated by glycolysis and the Krebs' cycle (i.e., the NADH and FADH 2 ) enter...

Traditional Chinese Medicine

The traditional Chinese clinician inspects a patient in four stages looking, listening or smelling, asking, and touching. Inspection of the tongue and palpation of the pulse are the two most important examinations. The tongue is believed to be the clearest indicator of the nature of the disharmony. The Chinese recognize more than 100 different conditions of internal energy imbalance, based on the color and texture of the tongue ''fur.'' The condition of the five major organ-energy systems is evaluated according to their corresponding areas on the tongue. These systems are the kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs, and heart.

General Arousal States and Mood

Two recent studies of mine considered arousal and mood relationships in a different way (Thayer, 1987b). Over a period of several weeks, participants completed self-ratings of energy, tension, and optimism, as well as other kinds of mood, at various fixed times in their circadian arousal cycles, and also following moderate exercise. Previous research indicated that arousal would be high or low in these various periods and conditions. Moods were found to covary with the circadian and exercise-produced arousal changes. The high arousal state of late morning and following moderate exercise was associated with heightened energy, optimism, and other related states. Tension was also reduced in these periods. Low arousal periods, such as late afternoon, were associated with reduced energy, less optimism and increased tension. Moreover, across arousal periods, low energy and high tension ratings usually predicted substantially reduced optimism. In a later study (Thayer, Takahashi & Pauli,...

Pharmacologic Treatment

The sequelae of long-term bisphosphonates on bone metabolism remain unclear. There is a hypothesis that prolonged treatment with bisphosphonates may lead to adynamic, fragile bone. In this state of oversuppression, microfractures generated through the wear and tear of normal daily life begin to accumulate and coalesce, leading to insufficiency fractures. Accumulation of microdamage is associated with a reduction in bone toughness. Many studies report low-energy subtrochanteric or mid shaft fractures after prolonged treatment with alendronate. This type of fracture is caused by minimal or no trauma and is characterized by (1) simple or transverse fracture, (2) breaking of the cortex on one side, and (3) hypertrophied diaphy-seal cortices, Currently, the recommendation for bisphosphonate therapy is a 5-year period of treatment. Once the BMD is in its plateau and the urine level of NTx is in therapeutic range (20-40 nmol bone collagen equivalents mmol of creatinine), changes in...

Four Human Ecological Concepts And The Analysis Of Migration

Three dimensions figure prominently in the above definitions material features (tools, capital equipment, machines) information (knowledge, techniques, scientific discovery) and energy. These are the same three ecosystem ''commodity'' flows that Duncan (1964) identifies as basic to the survival of populations. However, the problem with trying to apply these three dimensions to national subareas, such as counties, states, or provinces, is that, like the larger concept of technology of which these are a part, the dimensions have been conceived at the societal level of analysis. It is difficult to contend that the level of technology, as just defined, varies in any significant way at the subsocietal level. For example, not all county populations make use of the same tools, techniques, and information, but the technology available, while its actual application may be concentrated in a few areas, tends to have a society-wide impact in urban industrial nations. In a sense, then, the level...

Subaxial Cervical and Upper Thoracic Spine Fractures in the Elderly

Severe Central Canal Stenosis

The geriatric cervical spine is prone to injury. The susceptibility to bony, ligamentous, and neurological injury may be associated with age-related changes including osteoporotic bone, stiffened spinal articulations, preexisting stenosis, and altered spinal cord vasculature and morphology. Because of these factors, which influence injury susceptibility in the elderly patient, the majority of subaxial cervical and upper thoracic spine injuries occur secondary to low-energy mechanisms. Even within the geriatric population, age is an important predictor of injury location based on mechanism. Initial evaluation should consist of resuscitation as outlined by Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines. Cervical spine precautions should be maintained even for perceived low-energy mechanisms. Patients with no complaints of neck pain but a history compatible with possible neck injury should have cervical collar stabilization until cleared. A thorough history and physical should be performed. An...

Conventional Training

Outpatient therapy tends to concentrate on improving stride length, swing and stance symmetry of the legs, speed, stair climbing, balance on uneven ground, and confidence in moving about in the community. Therapists continue to provide physical and verbal cues to correct the pattern of gait. Energy consumption is higher with a limp than with a normal gait pattern and rises faster with an increase in speed. The therapist helps the patient find a functional compromise between speed, safety, and energy demand. The need for bracing and assistive devices tends to change over the first 6 months after a stroke and over a longer period for paraparetic patients. Antispasticity medications for walking-induced symptoms and signs of hypertonicity such as clonus and spasms are rarely needed during the inpatient care of patients with a first stroke, but may be worth trying in patients with chronic upper mo-toneuron lesions.

Use Of X Rays For Materials Characterization

X-Ray photons are produced following the ejection of an inner orbital electron from an irradiated atom and subsequent transition of atomic orbital electrons from states of high to low energy. When a monochromatic beam of X-ray photons falls onto a given specimen, three basic phenomena may result absorption, scatter, or fluorescence. The coherently scattered photons may undergo subsequent interference, leading in turn to the generation of diffraction maxima. The angles at which the diffraction maxima occur can be related to the spacings between planes of atoms in the crystal lattice, and hence X-ray-generated diffraction patterns can be used to study the structure of solid materials. Following the discovery

Nuclear Power And Uncertainty

Many assessors evaluating nuclear-related risks in situations of factual or probabilistic uncertainty follow traditional norms of avoiding false positives (type-I error) rather than avoiding false negatives (type-II error). For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which develop principles of radiation protection, require that radiation levels be kept as low as reasonably achievable, even below a particular exposure standard. In so doing, the ICRP and IAEA appear to follow the norm of avoiding false negatives, false assumptions of no harm (ICRP, 1991. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Pergamon, Oxford IAEA, 1995. Organization and Operation of a National Infrastructure Governing Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources. IAEA, Vienna). However, when U.S. government risk assessors evaluated the radiation exposures of the late Orville Kelly, they...

Photoelectron Spectra of Solids

Escape Depth Photoelectrons

The situation is more difficult for insulating samples. Photoionization creates positive charges within the sample that are not equilibrated immediately, and the sample becomes charged. At the same time there is usually a relatively high density of low-energy electrons close to the sample surface, which can neutralize the positive charges. The equilibrium between outgoing and incoming electrons depends on the measuring conditions, specifically on the intensity of the ionizing radiation and the cleanness of the surrounding metal parts. Therefore, the actual charging potential (Fig. 5b) depends on the measuring conditions. The charging may not even be homogeneous over the surface area investigated (differential charging), resulting in a broadening of the observed lines. Sample charging can be reduced by use of very thin samples or a separate source of low-energy electrons (flood gun). Alternatively, sample charging can be taken into account by depositing small amounts of a reference...

Incidence and Etiology

The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on April 26, 1986, led to widespread contamination. About 70 of the most contaminated territory of the former Soviet Union was located in the republic of Belarus. The entire spectrum of radioactive products of nuclear fuel decay also contaminated major populations of Ukraine. Iodine radionuclides entered the body through inhalation or by mouth, which in turn resulted in large radiation doses to the thyroid glands. The total dose of thyroid exposure was caused primarily by 131I and 133I. Additional external gamma radiation exposure and internal exposure were attributed to cesium and other radionuclides. Children younger than 7 years of age living in the resettlement zone around the power plant received the maximal thyroid exposure. The average dose in these children ranged from 2.1 to 4.7 Gy, depending on the district in which they lived.19 The effects of radioactive iodine took place against a background of endemic goiter, which is...

Basic Concepts Underlying Radiation Therapy

Radiation is energy that is propagated in the form of waves or particles it is categorized as electromagnetic or particulate. Particulate radiation is the propagation of energy by traveling particles characterized by mass, momentum, and position in time examples include electrons, protons, and alpha particles. First described by Maxwell in the mid-nineteenth century, electromagnetic radiations are transverse waves consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields examples include x-rays, gamma rays, radiowaves, visible light, ultraviolet light, and microwaves. The energy of electromagnetic radiation is often quantized as photons, or packets. The distinction between par-ticulate and electromagnetic radiation is somewhat blurred. Sometimes photons behave more like waves and sometimes more like particles, whereas particles such as electrons and protons can exhibit wavelike properties. In general, low-energy photons, such as radiowaves, often act more like waves, and higher energy...

Environmental Radiation Exposure

As with the medical radiation exposure just described, environmental radiation exposure of the thyroid can be from external sources as well as internal ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine. The populations exposed are geographically related to discrete regional events involving either nuclear weapons or nuclear power plant accidents. All of the environmental exposures described previously occurred more than 40 years ago and have in large part been studied retrospectively to provide a long-term database for acute gamma radiation and nuclear fallout exposure. In April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant explosion released an estimated 50 million Ci of radioactive materials into the atmosphere and exposed an estimated 1.5 million people in southern Belarus and the northern Ukraine.28 The fallout early in the disaster consisted of a large amount of 131I together with short-lived isotopes 1291,1321,1331, 134I, and 135I.29 Some investigators have suggested that the increased incidence...

Other Affective Disorders

The main features of SAD include low mood, increased appetite and weight, hypersomnia, and low energy. Because of the seasonality of the disorder, most theories have examined biological hypotheses especially in relation to the lightsensitive hormone melatonin, although more recent approaches have also examined psychological factors. Despite early enthusiasm, however, the melatonin hypothesis has not been supported by the available data (Rosenthal & Wehr, 1992). There are a number of more recent biological hypotheses (see Dalgleish, Rosen, & Marks, 1996, for a summary), but there is as yet no clear support for any of them. Data collected by Dalgleish and colleagues (Dalgleish, Spinks, Golden, & du-Toit, 2004 Dalgleish, Spinks, Yiend, & Kuyken, 2001 Spinks & Dalgleish, 2001) suggest differences between seasonal depression and unipolar depression on tasks such as the Autobiographical Memory Task, though the equivalent comparisons still need to be made with those with bipolar disorders.

Flow thresholds for preservation of function and morphological integrity

The different energy requirements for maintenance of membrane function and for propagation of information (signals) lead to different thresholds of energy consumption and consequently blood flow required for preservation of neuronal function and morphological integrity. The range of perfusion between those limits - a blood flow level below which neuronal function is impaired and a lower threshold below which irreversible membrane failure and morphological damage occur - was called the ischemic penumbra 55 it is characterized by the potential for functional recovery without morphological damage, provided that local blood flow can be reestablished at a sufficient level and within a certain time window 56, 57 .

Oxidative Stress A Major Challenge for Epididymal Spermatozoa

The oxygen paradox is very evident in the epididymal compartment because while post-testicular spermatozoa are very susceptible to oxidative injury they evolve in a luminal environment that is surprisingly rather pro-oxidant. This is particularly the case of the proximal part of the epididymis tubule, where an oxidative environment serves at least two major functions. It is first used to complete the structural maturation of the male gamete through spontaneous or enzyme-mediated disulfide-bridging events that both required hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or and lipid peroxides (LOOH). Secondly, it is part of the epididymal immune strategy. As it is the case in the testis, the epididymal luminal compartment must establish a tolerogenic environment toward spermatozoa while preserving itself from infectious situations. Recent data suggest that a peculiar state of inflammation is triggered in the proximal epididymis by the spermatozoa themselves 5 . ROS are normal products of inflammatory...

History and Geography

Other previously unsolved outbreaks were found to have been legionellosis. In 1973, all 10 men involved in cleaning a steam turbine condenser at a power plant on the James River in Virginia had developed what in retrospect seemed to have been Pontiac fever. Testing of stored serum specimens confirmed this. An outbreak of 78 hospitalized cases of pneumonia in Austin, Minnesota, in the summer of 1957 had been investigated at the time. Although the records had been preserved, the serum specimens had been lost in a refrigeration mishap. Survivors were recontacted in 1979, and they and the appropriate controls were bled to confirm the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease in what is to date the earliest documented epidemic of legionellosis.

Ill Be Back Acupressure Stretch and Press

Margaret Naeser, Ph.D., licensed acupuncturist and associate research professor of neurology at the Boston University School of Medicine, has been using low-energy lasers (5-20 megawatts compared to a typical surgical laser of 300 watts) to treat postsurgical pain from carpal tunnel syndrome. A red beam is all you see on your wrist or hand. You don't feel a thing while you end the zing Margaret Naeser, Ph.D., licensed acupuncturist and associate research professor of neurology at the Boston University School of Medicine, has been using low-energy lasers (5-20 megawatts compared to a typical surgical laser of 300 watts) to treat postsurgical pain from carpal tunnel syndrome. A red beam is all you see on your wrist or hand. You don't feel a thing while you end the zing

Lisfranc Injuries Anatomy

In low-energy athletic injuries, the injury is primarily liga-mentous and instability affects only the second metatarsal. However, more extensive injury may occur the amount and direction of applied energy determine the extent and direction of the Lisfranc disruption. Football-related injuries are not uncommon, especially in linemen. Snowboarding- and windsurfing-related injuries may result as one falls away from the forefoot, which is secured by a foot sling.

Physiologic mechanisms linking physical activity and energy balance

Increased physical activity and less physical inactivity raises total energy expenditure, allowing individuals to consume more calories without gaining weight. There are several lines of evidence to indicate that individuals with 'a low energy output syndrome' are at an increased risk of weight gain and obesity, irrespective of whether this is caused by a genetically determined low resting metabolic rate 9 , by low levels of fidgeting or by an environmentally determined low level of physical activity 10 . Athletes with very high levels of physical activity may have the opposite problem difficulty in ingesting enough calories to replenish and maintain body energy and fat stores.

Optimal nutrition for physical training and competition a challenge for nutritional science

One of the reasons for the common idea that athletes need special diets might be based on the misconception that an increased energy turnover per se leads to increased needs for other nutrients. However, this is not necessarily the case. Increased physical exercise is essentially a question of increased energy turnover, while the turnover of essential nutrients is usually not related to energy turnover to such an extent that there is a need for increased intakes. Most studies of food habits have indicated that the nutrient density, i.e. nutrients per energy unit, is the same in low-energy consumers as in high-energy consumers. Thus the increased food intake in physically active individuals will automatically have an increased intake of essential nutrients. To what extent the intake of essential nutrients is a valid problem is consequently mainly due to two factors (i) are the athletes in energy balance and (ii) are they eating an optimal, nutritionally balanced diet according to...

Fractures of the phalanges and metacarpals

Fractures in the hand encountered in sports are often a result of low-energy injuries and are frequently stable 89 . Diagnosis is often easily made by an X-ray. On physical examination it is important to assess rotation of the ray by asking the patient to flex the fingertips and touch the palm (Fig. 6.7.17). Fractures of the distal phalanx may be divided into tuft, shaft and base or physeal fractures in children 90 . Most closed shaft and tuft fractures are stable and these may be associated with nailbed injuries. Stable fractures may be immobilized with a stack splint. Base fractures of the distal phalanx will be discussed in mallet finger deformities. Proximal and middle phalanx fractures are very common, especially in the index and small fingers 91 . Fractures are classified according to their anatomic location and include condylar neck and subcondylar shaft and base or epiphyseal fractures 92-94 . Condylar fractures are either uni-or bicondylar and displaced fractures should be...

Epidemiologic evidence

Following the results of a survey by an expert group 5 of the global prevalence of obesity, the WHO has now declared obesity to be one of the major international health problems. The situation continues to worsen for example, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in England has doubled over the past 10-15 years 5 . In this same period energy consumption, estimated on a national level, has been seen to be decreasing. This must mean that energy expenditure by physical exercise has diminished or, more accurately, that physical inactivity has been increasing. This is probably caused by a combination of the widespread availability of mechanized transportation, which requires no muscular activity, the increase in physically inactive jobs and production methods, and the increase in inactive leisure activities, such as watching television. The latter is a particular problem in children, where many age groups spend up to 5-6 h day in front of the television 6 . The significance of these...

Energy sources during exercise in the postabsorptive state

During exercise, the energy consumption may be increased by 20-fold. The primary factor determining whether carbohydrates or fat are preferentially used during exercise is the exercise intensity, the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrates growing progressively larger with increasing intensity. At a moderate exercise level of 100 W, demanding an oxygen uptake of around 1.5 L min, equalling an energy expenditure of 1800 kJ h, the proportions might typically change to 60 carbohydrates and 40 fat. In this situation, the demand for carbohydrates (65 g glucose h, i.e. 1080 kJ) is met by glycogenolysis (around 40-45 g h) and glucose uptake (around 20 g h), whereas the demand for fat is met by lipolysis in adipose tissue and muscle, supplying 18 g fatty acids (i.e. 720 kJ). Under normal circumstances, protein is not an important metabolic fuel during exercise, and it is considered unlikely that, even during prolonged exercise, protein oxidation can cover more than 10 of the energy...

Energy density vs nutrient density

The energy density of a diet refers to the amount of energy per weight or volume, while the nutrient density refers to the amount of nutrient in relation to energy, i.e. g 10 MJ. Foods rich in fat and sugar have a high energy density, while their nutrient density is low. Persons with a high energy turnover, i.e. endurance athletes, may however cover their nutrient needs even on a diet with low nutrient density if they are in energy balance, while a low nutrient density may be detrimental in low-energy consumers. There are few examples, if any, where athletes consuming a normal diet in amounts relevant to cover their energy needs develop any objective signs of nutrient deficiency.

General Approach to Treatment

Four stages have been suggested for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. Stage 1 or Prevention Plus is the first step for overweight or obese patients and includes adherence to healthy eating and activity habits. Patients should be encourage to eat greater than or equal to five servings of fruits and vegetables daily, limit consumption of sweetened drinks, decrease television or other screen time behaviors, and increase physical activity to greater than or equal to 1 h day. Stage 2 or Structured Weight Management incorporates Prevention Plus habits while setting specific eating and activity goals. Responsibilities include meal planning, observed physical activity or play daily for 1 hour and, documentation of energy consumption and expenditure. Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Interventions (Stage 3) is directed at increasing the intensity of healthy behaviors. To accomplish goals, the child or adolescent should work closely with the primary care provider, registered...

Vibrational Fine Structure

The low-energy PE spectra of small and medium size molecules often contain bands with well-resolved vibrational fine structure. Since the resolution in UPS is usually limited to about 150 cm-1 ( 15 meV), only excitations into well-separated vibrational states of the final ion state can be observed (see, however, Section I.I). As

Functional Renormalization Group for Interacting Many Fermion Systems on Two Dimensional Lattices

Abstract Functional renormalization group (fRG) methods have become a widely used tool to investigate the low-energy properties of interacting fermions. In particular for two-dimensional lattice systems with competing ordering tendencies, they are very suitable for investigating the interplay of various possible instabilities and their mechanisms. Here we review the main elements of the fRG method, its current state and some applications to correlated electron systems where the fRG has proved useful, and outline some issues for the further development of the method. The low-temperature phase diagrams of modern correlated electron materials like layered copper oxides 1,2 , heavy fermions 3,4 , or iron pncitides 5-7 exhibit various competing ground states with different types of collective behavior. In most cases, these ground states can be classified by the means of order parameters and collective excitations, but there is also strong interest in the states of electron matter without...

Example Calculation Air Distribution Duct

Radiant heat provides energy savings over conventional space heating applications via two physical principles. One is that radiant heat is applied directly to occupants of a space, thereby reducing the overall air temperature that needs to be maintained in the space for the same occupant comfort level. Recall the example of being out in the direct sun versus in the shade. Even though these two places are at the same air temperature, one feels much warmer out in the direct radiant energy. The second energy saving results from the application of radiant heat at the floor and occupied area rather than up high in the building where most stable space heat systems discharge heated air. In-floor radiant heat heats the floor directly. Radiant heaters mounted overhead will heat the floor area that the heater sees. As air near the heated floor is warmed, it slowly rises. Radiant heaters do not use fans or duct distribution systems and the associated noise and dust movement, but they need to be...

Model Hamiltonians

We include one orbital per site only. But in a realistic multiorbital system it is likely that criteria for localization are first fulfilled for a single orbital or for two of them (compare with the dual model of 5f electrons) before the system becomes an insulator. Also, there may be a redistribution of electrons among different orbitals as the phase transition is approached. The spectral density and in particular the low-energy peak as obtained, e.g., from a DMFT calculation behave quite different when the ground state is paramagnetic and when it has a long-range AF order. An open question is how AF correlations modify the spectral density as the correlation length increases continuously near a metal-insulator transition. The spin operators are S, (1 2) J2ap a+aoapa,p and nio a+aaio. The coupling constant is J 4t2 U and defines a low-energy scale caused by the strong correlations. At half filling Ht 0 and we deal with an antiferromagnetic (AF) Heisenberg Hamiltonian. Its excitations...

Driving down costs

On the equipment and processing side, a good example from Procter & Gamble is the 80 reduction in material warehousing space, 25 reduction in material, and reduced energy usage in transportation for their Always feminine products packaging, following a packaging and machinery re-design (Dupont, 2010). The process swapped from wicketed polyethylene bags to continuous flow wrapping


Manufacturers provide a variety of collimators with different performance characteristics. Low-energy high-resolution collimators (LEHR) have good resolution characteristics and are used with low-energy isotopes. There is always a trade-off between resolution and efficiency in collimators. The relationship between the collimator efficiency and the collimator resolution is approximately given by Cherry, Sorensen, and Phelps 6


Dietary fat supplies 2.25 times as much energy per gram as protein or carbohydrate. Water has no energy value and so a diet with a high moisture content will contain a low energy density and therefore fewer calories. It is important that energy intake is carefully controlled to allow the animal to reach and maintain optimum body condition. Excess energy can lead to obesity and growth abnormalities. Inadequate energy intake leads to poor growth and weight loss. Both conditions are potentially damaging to health and should be avoided by careful dietary management. For obese or obesity-prone dogs a low energy intake is indicated, and there are now specially prepared diets that have a very low energy density those that are most effective have a high fibre content.


An isometric contraction offers the simplest form of biomechanical stress to activate the contractile apparatus of muscle. Isometric exercise may be best, especially for patients with diseases affecting the motor unit. Compared to activities that require a high eccentric contractile component, isometric exercise tends not to produce muscle injury and may cost less energy. For the rehabilitation of people with limited mobility, isometric paradigms provide the most energy efficient means of maintaining muscle mass and strength. Specific methods for improving fitness and strength that are relevant to the disabled subject are discussed in Chapters 5 and 12.


This kind of training can be done in the same way as running, with varying distances and speeds. While Olympic athletes can walk 10,000 metres in less than 40 minutes, most people wouldn't be able to run it in that time. To increase energy consumption at low walking speeds, a rucksack or weight belt may be carried. Walking in forest, parklands or the beautiful countryside is an extremely popular weekend activity for a great many British people a day out can be a great experience as well as excellent exercise. To help city dwellers and single elderly people who may not dare to walk alone, walking clubs are springing up in most cities. These clubs organise walks in small groups, which also has a

Molecular Alignment

In our study, the conformation deduced from the X-ray data for FPL 64176, one of the most active compounds in the data set, was used as the starting point for the construction of 3D structures of the 36 compounds. Substituent variations were built in Chem-X using standard bond lengths and angles. The structures were not fully optimized. Full optimization would have introduced small differences in the bond angles, bond lengths and torsion angles of the common portions of the molecules in the test set, and this would have given rise to noise in the GRID analysis. In this case, all the molecules shared a common molecular fragment, a dimethyl substituted pyrrole ring, which is known to be important for binding. Structural variation was introduced on the phenyl ring at the ortho position with respect to the linking keto group adjoining the pyrrole ring. Initial molecular alignment involved overlaying the pyrrole ring of each structure, followed by conformational analysis of the side chain....


A recent development is a material called Demron which is produced by laminating a polymer film between a woven and non-woven fabric. The polymer is a composite of polyurethane and polyvinylchloride that incorporates organic and inorganic salt particles that block X-rays, low-energy gamma, alpha and beta emissions. The polymer must be tailored for a specific threat. Suits are now being made of this material.


The performance of the lighting system is critical to the performance of the building. Both natural and artificial lighting is used to illuminate stable and riding arena activities. Design either system to meet the lighting needs of the specific spaces. With natural lighting the design issues are the size, location, and protection of openings for light entrance. For electrical lights, the design issues include the light uniformity, type of bulb, energy efficiency, light color, the bulb fixture and reflector, mounting height, spacing, and switch location.

Infants and Toddlers

The composition of human milk varies by time, day, and maternal nutrition and from woman to woman. Infant formulas contain about 50 more protein than human milk and, like breast milk, provide 40 to 50 of energy as fat (Table 23-4). Beginning at 2 years of age, fat calories should decrease to approximately 30 of total energy consumption, with less than 10 of calories from saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol less than 300 mg day (AAP, 2009).

Exterior Lighting

Exterior lighting is to enhance the safety of farm workers, add security against theft or vandalism, and improve the productivity of workers. Use energy-efficient lamps (metal halide or high-pressure sodium) and locate to provide light at building entrances and work areas, such as the manure storage and hay and bedding storage (Table 11.6 provides outdoor lighting recommendations). Low-pressure sodium (LPS) lamps cast such a yellow glow of light that they are not useful in farmstead lighting. For example, under LPS lights the color rendition is so poor that blood and motor oil appear the same. Floodlights (incandescent, quartz-halogen, or HID) on the front, back, and sides of buildings are useful not only for protection but in case of loose animals. These do not have to be lit other than when needed. Outdoor riding arenas may have lights for nighttime riding activities (Fig. 11.19).

Concept of Truth

In 1931, while discoursing with Charlie Chaplin, Gandhi declared that he was not necessarily antitechnology but his priorities were different. His emphasis was on indigenous tradition, naturopathy, artisan and craft-based productions, using low energy and decentralized production system. His swadeshi movement had social, cultural, and technological dimensions as well as political objectives. To some extent, this can be seen as a precursor of modern ecological movements. However, his social movement for swadeshi did not create a new intellectual breakthrough it did not direct individual creativity into opening up new areas of research and development.

Magnetic Shielding

Low-energy electrons are very sensitive to the stray magnetic fields that exist in any laboratory, such as the magnetic field of the earth. These stray fields strongly influence the trajectories of the traveling electrons. As a result, all parts of a PE spectrometer between ionization region and detector must be carefully shielded. This can be done with Helmholtz coils, which compensate the external fields, or with magnetically shielding materials like mu-metal. The latter type of shielding is used in most modern instruments, because shielding with Helmholtz coils is difficult for the dynamic stray fields produced by many types of laboratory equipment. Improper shielding leads to reduced sensitivity and resolution, as well as to asymmetric skewed lines.

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