Complete English Grammar Rules

The Farlex Grammar Book

The grammar book for the 21st century has arrived, from the language experts at Farlex International and, the trusted reference destination with 1 billion annual visits. The Farlex Grammar Book is a comprehensive guide consisting of three volumes: Volume I-English Grammar, Volume II-English Punctuation, Volume III-English Spelling, and Pronunciation.Inside, you'll find clear, easy-to-understand explanations of everything you need to master proper grammar, including complete English grammar rules, examples, and exceptionsplus a grammar quiz at the end of every topic to test what you've learned.Farlex brings you the most comprehensive grammar guide yet: all the rules of English grammar, explained in simple, easy-to-understand terms. Over 500 pages of proper grammar instruction2x more than the leading grammar book! Whether you're an expert or a beginner, there's always something new to learn when it comes to the always-evolving English language. Only Complete English Grammar Rules gives you common grammar mistakes, thousands of real-world examples. With Complete English Grammar Rules, you'll be able to: Quickly master basic English grammar and tackle more advanced topics, Properly use every type of noun, verb, and even the most obscure grammar elements, Master verb tenses, including irregular verbs and exceptions, Avoid embarrassing grammar errors. More here...

The Farlex Grammar Book Summary


4.7 stars out of 12 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Farlex, Inc.
Official Website:
Price: $10.00

Access Now

My The Farlex Grammar Book Review

Highly Recommended

The writer has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

This ebook does what it says, and you can read all the claims at his official website. I highly recommend getting this book.

Functions of Concepts

Concepts are also centrally involved in communication. Many of our concepts correspond to lexical entries, such as the English word flashlight. For people to avoid misunderstanding each other, they must have comparable concepts in mind. If A's concept of cell phone corresponds with B's concept of flashlight, it will not go well if A asks B to make a call. An important part of the function of concepts in communication is their ability to combine to create an unlimited number of new concepts. Nearly every sentence you encounter is new - one you have never heard or read before - and concepts (along with the sentence's grammar) must support your ability to understand it. Concepts are also responsible for more ad hoc uses of language. For example, from the base concepts of TROUT and FLASHLIGHT, you might create a new concept, TROUT FLASHLIGHT, which in the context of our current discussion would presumably be a flashlight used when trying to catch trout (and not a flashlight with a picture...

Fragmentation of Semantics and Memory

The standard approach to sentence meaning in linguistics is to think of the meaning of sentences as built from the meaning of the words that compose them, guided by the sentence's grammar (e.g., Chierchia & McConnell-Ginet, 1990). We can understand sentences that we have never heard or read before, and because there are an enormous number of such novel sentences, we cannot learn their meaning as single chunks. It therefore seems quite likely that we compute the meaning of these new sentences. However, if word meaning is the position of a node in a network, it is hard to see how this position could combine with other positions to produce sentence meanings. What is the process that could take the relative network positions for FRED, PLACE, DAISY, IN, and LUNCHBOX and turn them into a meaning for Fred placed a daisy in a lunchbox

Autonomous linguistics vs cognitive linguistics

Can we treat language as an independent subject of study Is there a legitimate science of words alone, of phonetics, grammar and lexicography Or must all study of speaking lead to the treatment of linguistics as a branch of the general science of culture The distinction between language and speech, still supported by such writers as Buhler and Gardiner, but dating back to De In recent years, a number of linguists who are sceptical of the autonomy hypothesis, who believe, with Lakoff, that aspects of experience and cognition are crucially implicated in the structure and functioning of language, have given the term 'cognitive' to their approach. With the publication in 1987 of two monumental monographs Langacker's Foundations of Cognitive Grammar and LakofTs Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things the approach is likely to exert an increasing influence on the direction of linguistic research for some years to come. This said, it should not be forgotten that the cognitive approach is much...

Verbal Mathematical and Visual Thinking

The domain of the right-hemisphere, utilizes images - both remembered and imagined. It creates the unknown from the known by synthesis - by dissecting, recombining, permuting, and morphing ideas and images. The first way of thinking, the verbal-mathematical, is based on learned rules of grammar and logic. The second way of thinking, the visual, makes greater use of the imagination it is less structured but allows greater conceptual jumps through free association.

Characterizing the properties of declarative and procedural memory

However, intact learning in amnesia is not limited to general motor skills. Rather, the scope of spared memory in amnesia includes a variety of forms of highly specific new learning. Also, intact learning in amnesia is not limited to simple forms of perceptual learning or other easy tasks, as clearly shown by the improvements in very difficult tasks such as grammar learning and sequence production. In addition, spared learning in amnesia is not limited to types of learning that involve slow incremental improvement, but includes a variety of forms of one-trial learning, such as observed in numerous repetition priming tests. Indeed, priming for single exposures to pictures can be both robust and last at least a week in am

Good writing See effective writing

Grammar Grammar is simply the set of rules needed to ensure that, when one person says or writes something in a particular language, others sharing that language will understand. Most of us are pretty good at it. We may not be able to parse, or decline, or identify the parts of speech, but we do manage to use the rules to put our messages across. Fortunately there are several strategies you can adopt to produce well-grammared sentences (a bad example of verbing - see verbs). If you are really keen, buy a book - not one of those thick tomes with acres of small print on the finer points, but a short book, for children or foreigners or journalists, that gives you the main rules. Alternatively, use the grammar checker on your computer. These are getting much better than they used to be, and you don't even have to have studied grammar at school to work out what you need to put it right. Finally, if you are part of that group of people who went to school when it was fashionable not to teach...

Developmental Neuroplasticity Of Language Functions

In fMRI studies comparing sentence processing in English and ASL, we also observed evidence for biological constraints and effects of experience on the mature organization of the language systems of the brain. As in the study described above, hearing adults with no ASL background, hearing native signers and deaf native signers, were imaged while observing written English sentences and while observing sentences signed in ASL (Neville et al, 1998). When hearing adults read English, their first language, there was robust activation within the left but not the right hemisphere and in particular within the inferior frontal (Broca's) regions. When deaf people read English, their second language, learned late and imperfectly, these regions within the left hemisphere were not activated. Is this lack of left-hemisphere activation in the deaf linked to lack of auditory experience with language or to incomplete acquisition of English grammar ASL is not sound based but displays each of the...

Confiding Hidden Wounds

I want you to write continuously about the most upsetting or traumatic experience of your entire life. Don't worry about grammar, spelling, or sentence structure. In your writing, I want you to discuss your deepest thoughts and feelings italics added about the experience. You can write about anything you want. But whatever you choose, it should be something that has affected you very deeply. Ideally, it should be something you have not talked about with others in detail. It is critical, however, that you let yourself go and touch those deepest emotions and thoughts that you have. In other words, write about what happened and how you felt about it, and how you feel about it now. Finally, you can write on different traumas during each session or the same one over the entire period . Your choice of trauma for each session is entirely up to you.

The evolution of language and symbolism

By the end of the Renaissance, the stress changed from theoretical studies to prescriptive grammars that were used for teaching purposes this separated professional linguistics into a formal discipline that evolved independently. From the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, scholars were involved in the debate between empiricists and rationalists that permeated the approach to linguistics 5 . The empiricists seemed more attracted toward phonetic studies, universal alphabets, and the formalization of the grammars of the different languages, whereas the rationalists were more inclined to develop philosophical grammars. Leibniz (1646-1716), a rationalist, was interested in the development of a Universal Language (lingua characteristica universalis), which would represent concepts in a foolproof manner, using some kind of ideographic or iconic symbolism that could be understood by everybody. Descartes (1596-1650), perhaps the archetype of rationalism, had previously proposed the...

Language is a highly sophisticated social instrument

Attributed to a mental grammar, some kind of hypothetical program or generative grammar that allows us to produce a practically infinite number of sentences with a finite number of words. This interpretation of language as a device to make sentences cannot be taken seriously, because it misses the essence of language, which is to symbolize, to encode information and to communicate rapidly and effectively in the real world. There are many approaches to language, and there is nothing objectionable in collecting all the rules that apply to different languages or to search for a Universal Grammar. The problem, however, would be to lose the biological perspective and to believe that language is just a system of rules. The common sense idea that language is a way to communicate and to increase the survival of the social group cannot be buried under the complexity of grammatical rules. Subsequent portions of this chapter elaborate on the idea that language is a biological function which...

Structuralism The Other

Lacan reread Freud's work through the lens of structuralism and linguistics and posited that the human sublet is constituted not only by drives and unconscious desires but also by structural forces that cannot be grasped on an experiential basis. They are laws that exist beyond the individual's subjectivity and history that shape the subject's core. Language, for instance, is a structure not only that we speak it is a structure by which we are spoken. Language precedes the subject and thus structures the subject in the fundamental way that the subject thinks, feels, acts, and desires. Language is not a tool we use but a structure by which we are shaped in our innermost being. When we learn a language, we also absorb its organization, grammar, cul

Language Learning Past Tense

Indeed, in another model that basically invents its own past-tense grammar without input from the environment, Taatgen showed that it will develop one or more past-tense rules for low-frequency words but will tend to adopt more efficient irregular forms for high-frequency words. In the ACT-R economy the greater phonological efficiency of the irregular form justifies its maintenance in declarative memory if it is of sufficiently high frequency.

Some Thoughts on Methodology

In the first, Mathews et al. (1989) had experimental subjects engage in an implicit learning task over a four-day period. The study used what is known as an artificial grammar (AG). An example of a typical AG is given in Figure 18.1 along with several letter strings that it can generate and a number of nongrammatical or not well-formed strings that contain a single letter violation. It is apparent that the system is complex and, as Mathews et al., found, not easy to describe. In the canonical AG learning study, subjects memorize a number (perhaps 15 or 20) of exemplary letter strings and then, using what knowledge they acquired from the learning phase, attempt to distinguish Figure 18.1. A typical artificial grammar used in many studies of implicit learning. The grammar generates letter strings by following the arrows from the input state (S1) to the terminal state (S6). Several examples of well-formed strings are presented along with others that contain a violation of the grammar....

Abstraction and Implicit Thought

Perceptual representation involves capturing surface features of objects without necessarily understanding what the objects are. A picture taken by a computer scanner is an example of a perceptual but not a conceptual representation. A scanner can take a picture of an object and store it in memory, while having no semantics and not representing anything meaningfully. The meaningful representation of objects involves, among other things, the ability to categorize and form mental representations of the categories abstractly. It has been proposed by a variety of researchers that many of the phenomena discussed in this chapter so far such as priming, lexical decision making, word fragment completion, artificial grammar learning, and dot pattern classification are tapping perceptual - not conceptual - processes (e.g., Perruchet &Vinter, 1998,2003 Shanks & St. John, 1994). From this perspective, the unconscious acts as a purely perceptual system capable, in some ways like a scanner or a...

Different types of memory and learning are processed and stored in functionally distinct brain regions

(2a) Procedural memory for sensorimotor and mental skills and habits. This form is responsible for know-how knowledge. Most of what we learn may take place though implicit learning that generates tacit knowledge in an unconscious fashion. Procedural memory includes category learning, which is preserved in amnesia, but is dependent on the integrity of the neostriatum. It also includes abstract knowledge and artificial grammar learning. Implicit learning is considered the default setting.

Implicit learning accounts for the knowledge of skills

A considerable part of our learning consists in the acquisition of information without awareness, as when we learn grammar 31 and many other mental skills (see below). Some philosophers have suggested that know-how knowledge could be reduced to linguistic instructions, but this is not the case. The knowledge of skills must be personally acquired and followed by practice for consolidation. A classic example is the learning by apprentices. The apprentice unconsciously picks up the rules of the art, including those which are not explicitly known to the master himself 30 . Arts and crafts provide examples of knowledge that cannot be verbalized, even by their own masters. Thus, As we know from experience, the acquisition of mental skills, such as learning arithmetic or complex mental operations, also requires years to learn. Knowledge about categories and artificial grammars can be acquired implicitly by accumulating information from multiple examples 32 , which include learning causal and...

Words affixes and clitics

Classification' (Robins 1964 180) appeared at best superfluous the grammar itself would 'automatically, by its rules, characterize any relevant class' (Householder 1967 103). Consequently, there has been very little discussion in generative circles of an issue which used to be thought fundamental, namely, how to define the word, the noun, the verb, etc. In this respect, the subject-matter of the present chapter harks back to earlier concerns, viewing them in the light of the prototype model which has been elaborated in preceding chapters. What then is the status of the Is it an affix No, because it possesses a certain degree of autonomy it can be preceded and followed by a pause, it can bear stress, and it is fairly unselective with regard to adjacent elements. Is it then a word No, because it does not possess the full autonomy of a word it cannot stand alone in an utterance, it cannot be moved independently of its host, and it is not always subject to deletion under identity....

The semantic basis of grammatical categories

In the discussion so far I have endeavoured to adhere to the structuralist maxim of the irrelevance of semantic criteria for word class definitions, and considered grammatical categories solely in terms of their syntactic properties. Even this approach, as we have seen, strongly points to the prototype structure of the categories. I would now like to reappraise the semantic basis for category definition. Cognitive linguists reject the notion of a syntactic level of linguistic organization, autonomous of semantics. The aim, asLakoff (1987 491) puts it, is to 'show how aspects of form follow from aspects of meaning'. Langacker is even more explicit 'Cognitive grammar makes specific claims about the notional basis of fundamental grammatical Graded membership in constructions has always posed a problem for the generative paradigm, with its axiom of a language as a well-defined set of grammatical sentences (see Matthews 1979 25 ff.). For the cognitive linguist, on the other hand, syntactic...

Racism See political correctness

That said, the tests can make an excellent market research tool that enables writers to test whether what they have written broadly speaking matches the tone that they are trying to achieve (see evidence-based writing). They can also show, when others try to change our work, whether they are taking it nearer to the style of their target audience, or moving it further away. Finally, readability scores encourage us to look at what we are writing in terms of how it will be understood - rather than whether we are meeting the rules of grammar and style - which must be a good thing.

What Is Language and How Did It and Creativity Evolve

The linguist, Derek Bickerton, and some anthropologists have taken this historical record as indicating that the evolution of language had two important phases, both with implications for creativity an initial stage of protolanguage (evidenced in Homo erectus), namely the type of language seen in pidgin languages and in early stages of language development in children. This language is nonsyntactic, of the form 'animal see, me run,' in which context and direct perceptual experience would be needed to disambiguate what had been said (and would not be considered a 'true' language because it fails to meet several of the criteria described by Hockett, such as the criterion of displacement). The second stage, associated with Homo sapiens, would consist of true language, with a fully developed grammar. With grammar one can escape the here-and-now and exhibit all the design features of language. To Bickerton, language evolved primarily to serve a representational and not a communicative...

Psycholinguistics Some Traditional Approaches

By the 1950s there was a paradigm shift away from behaviorism toward mentalist approaches in psychology and language alike. Prominent in this movement was the work of the linguist Noam Chomsky, who, in the late 1950s, influenced psychologists initially with a critique of Skinner's approach to language, especially with regard to Skinners attempt at explaining syntax as a chaining mechanism. Although Chomsky's specific theoretical arguments have undergone many changes since the publication in 1957 of his book Syntactic Structures, he has maintained an emphasis on grammar and on everyday linguistic creativity. Any model of language he argued must be capable of predicting which combination of words is felt to be acceptable and which unacceptable to an adult native speaker (labeled a 'descriptive grammar'). Language is a paradigmatic case of human creativity given our ability to produce and understand novelty on a daily basis. Because natural languages are infinitely large, Chomsky argued...

Linguistic Approaches

Three of the many developments in linguistics deserve special mention. On the one hand, there were reactions to aspects of the 'standard theory' and alternatives have appeared in the literature challenging either one or another of the assumptions posited by Chomsky and the mechanisms he posited as necessary. Nonetheless, in one way or another, these alternatives share some similarity to questions posed, or assumptions taken, by Chomsky found in various forms of Generative Semantics, Extended Standard Theory, Trace Theory, Case Grammar, X-bar theory, among others.

Comprehension Experiments

In the 1960s, psychologists attempted to take one or another linguistic theory as the basis for their experiments, testing whether the tenets of the theory were psychologically real. For instance, considerable research examined whether a sentence would be more difficult to process the further its s-structure was from its d-structure, whether people psychologically parsed sentences as predicted by a phrase structure grammar, and whether observations of children's acquisition of language provided evidence for an innate schema or universal grammar. The evidence in support of Chomsky has been questionable and in more recent years psycholinguists have abandoned a strict dependence on formal psycholinguis-tic models of the type championed by Chomsky to study language production and comprehension, largely using online

Simplicity A virtue in writing

Split infinitives This is where the two parts of the 'infinitive' form of a verb are split by an adverb, as in (and now famously) 'to boldly go' rather than 'to go boldly'. This practice causes some people to get upset. All writers on style, however, seem to agree that this rule is based on Latin grammar and was misguided from the start. If you want to split an infinitive and it sounds right, most modern authorities say, then go ahead and split it. If anyone complains, pass them a reference book and challenge them to find support for their position.

Auditory Linguistic Reading Disorder

Problems with the physical act of writing, drawing, copying figures, and other fine motor skills involving eye-hand coordination fall under this category of learning disorder. It also manifests as poorly organized writing and errors in spelling, punctuation, and grammar. The large motor skills (running, throwing, jumping) of children with this disorder are not involved. A child with a writing disorder may also have difficulty reading orally.

Use It or Lose It Language Determines the Categories of Thought

Much of the literature on linguistic relativity can be understood as raising related issues in various perceptual and conceptual domains. Is it the case that distinctions of lexicon or grammar made regularly in one's language sensitize one to these distinctions and suppress or muffle others Even to the extent of radically reorganizing the domain An important literature has investigated this issue using the instance of color names and color perception. Languages differ in their

Recent Developments 1995

Since this book was first published, in 1989, prototype categorization has received a fair amount of attention in the linguistic literature. There is, now, the monograph of Klciber (1990), the review article of MacLaury (1991), a special issue of the journal Linguistics (Vol. 27(4), 1989) on the theme 'Prospects and problems of prototype theory', and scheduled for 1995 is a special issue of Rivista di Linguistica. Collected volumes edited by Corrigan el al. (1989), Tsohatzidis (1990), and Geiger and Rudzka-Ostyn (1993) contain many chapters of immediate relevance. Mention should also be made of the publication, in 1991, of the second volume of Langacker's Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. This applies the theoretical principles developed in Langacker(1987) to a wide range of phenomena, in English and other languages, and tackles, alongside much else, such fundamental issues as the categories of noun and noun phrase, tense and modality, transitivity and case relations, and, in a final...

Major Acting Theories of Today

Konstantin Stanislavski's System remained dynamic throughout his life due to social and political constraints and his own personal search for creative clarity. Living in Russia he experienced European and Asian artistic traditions and saw popular shifts in theatre from nineteenth century histrionics to the realism and modernism of the twentieth century. He strove to codify the experience of creativity on stage into a common system which he himself warned never to use as a philosophy but merely as a handbook to bring the actor closer to the nature of creativity. He experimented with symbolism, verse, opera, western behaviorist psychology, eastern ideas on the mind-body continuum (including yoga), and trends in criticism in art and literature. He became the first Western practitioner of the twentieth century to articulate actor training, calling it the grammar of acting.

Planning See time management Plurals See Latin plurals

This is not an issue of grammar, but of style. Also, most research on writing shows clearly that capitals are hard to read and slow the reader down. They send a strong message that We are Important (though you, dear reader, are not). And when we start writing Consultants and Doctors but patients and nurses, then it risks becoming offensive - and therefore bad communication.

Paganism Versus Fundamentalist Religion The Medieval Europeans

Further evidence of medieval creativity was the work of the Roman Boethius, who served as counselor to Theodoric, King of the Visigoths. This ingenious scholar single-handedly produced the quadrivium, which offered explanations of the four 'mathematical' disciplines arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy. Together with the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and logic) later assembled by others, they formed the basic

The Pediatric History

In infancy, children use sounds to mimic words, as well as using gestures to communicate. At about 10 to 12 months of age, children usually speak their first word, usually dada or ''mama.'' By 15 months of age, children are expected to say between 3 and 10 words, and by 2 years of age, their vocabulary may contain more than 200 words it is at this age that we expect children to be able to put 2 or more words together in a phrase, such as ''Juice gone'' or ''Up me '' By 3 years of age, children are able to put together sentences of 5 or 6 words from a 1500-word vocabulary, and should be 50 intelligible to an adult who does not know the child. By the time they are 6 years of age, they are able to communicate in longer sentences, with a vocabulary of several thousand words, and use most of the grammar of their native language. Three-year-olds can give the clinician a good idea of what hurts, where, and how it feels. The 6-year-old can give some idea of how and when the complaint started....

Lila Gleitman Anna Papafragou

But the language-and-thought debate is not framed to query whether the content of conversation can influence one's attitudes and beliefs, for the answer to that question is too obvious for words. At issue, rather, is the degree to which natural languages provide the format in which thought is necessarily (or at least habitually) couched. Do formal aspects of a particular linguistic system (e.g., features of the grammar or the lexicon) organize the thought processes of its users One famous Aye to this question appears in the writings of B. L. Whorf in the first half of the twentieth century. Accord-ingto Whorf (1956, p. 214), the grammatical and lexical resources of individual languages heavily constrain the conceptual representations available to their speakers. To quote

History of Western Poetry

Poetic symbol shows a relationship between the thing and the readers. Prosody, or the ancient forms of verse, should be utilized in this attempt. Symbols expressed truth through suggestion rather than narration. Symbolist poetry also uses experimental grammar, many allusions that may make the poetry rather obscure. Paul Claudel (1868-1955) asserted that the symbol is metaphoric, that is, a relationship between two subjects. Each object is named and compared with another object, perhaps a divine object. For Claudel, the syllogistic nature of the old poetry should be replaced by the logic of the meta-phoric and the symbolic.

Polysemy and the network model

On the first issue, it should be borne in mind that the two-level approach is by no means unique in proposing a bifurcation of meaning into a purely linguistic component, and a non-linguistic, or encyclopaedic, component. On the contrary, the bifurcation is a common thread running through much semantic theorizing of the last couple of decades. The distinction is fundamental to Montague grammar,10 it turns up in Jackendoff's recent work,11 Sperber and Wilson's (1986) relevance theory is predicated upon it, Searle (1980 and 1983) appealed to it in his analysis of cut and open, as did Katz and Postal (1964) with their distinction between semantic markers, which are responsible for systematic contrasts in a language, and distinguishes, which capture the idiosyncratic residue (see Chapter 2, p. 33 f.). Methodological objections might be raised against such a proposal. If different uses of a word can be covered by a single semantic entry, why clutter up the grammar with a list of specific...

Language Network

As discussed under cortical motor networks, language may have evolved from the action observation system, perhaps as primates increased their social interactions for survival in hostile environments. Social isolation may follow the loss of language function in aphasic patients. The traditional aphasia syndromes correlate in a general way with damage to specific sites, but many aphasiologists have questioned the extent to which the traditional aphasia subtype classification (see Table 5-5) relates to localization.366 Wernicke's region in BA 37, 39, and 40 and Broca's region in BA 44 and 45 and their surrounds are tissues of relative specialization. These areas cannot simply be dichotomized as receptive and expressive language zones. Indeed, the left posterior ventral frontal area that is called Broca's and the left posterior superior temporal gyrus that is called Wernicke's have at least several functional subdivisions with variations in their connectivity.367 Language requires at...

Key thinkers

Chomsky had a very different view from Skinner, as he believed that language acquisition was innate and that children automatically learn it because they have an inbuilt mechanism that allows them to interpret de-code the language they hear and its rules. Known as the language acquisition device (LAD), recognition of 'linguistic universals' becomes possible. A distinction was made between the surface and deep structure of sentences, that is the actual phrases used versus their meaning. Chomsky suggested that the LAD further allows for the transformation of grammar such that the deep structure can be obtained from the surface structure. In 1986 Chomsky updated his theory and proposed the idea of a universal grammar rather than the LAD - the idea being that linguistic universals found in most languages allow for the innate interpretation of language. The form of language is related to the social world and the routines that take place within it, as society helps provide a context for the...

Skill learning

Mirror drawing, described before, is an example of spared capacity for the acquisition of sensorimotor skills. In addition, the intact capacity to learn skills extends to the acquisition of cognitive rules. For example, in one study subjects were presented with strings of letters that were generated by an artificial grammar that determined general rules for sequencing and length of the letter strings (Fig. 4-6). They studied these strings by reproducing each item immediately after its presentation. Then subjects were informed that the letter strings were formed by complex rules. Subsequently they were shown novel letter strings one at a time and asked to classify them as grammatical or nongrammatical according to whether they conformed with the rules. Finally, subjects were tested to determine if they could recognize grammatic letter strings after a brief study phase. Both amnesic and normal subjects were able to correctly classify the letter strings


Cortical stimulation studies in people undergoing craniotomies and functional neu-roimaging studies reveal specialized language sites with separable linguistic functions and other sites with overlapping functions. For example, lexical processing is more diffusely represented compared to morpheme-syntactic processing.12 32 The left temporal lobe encodes word meanings, but sentence comprehension is highly distributed. Lesions confined to a handful of specific sites tend to predict particular disorders.127,133 For example, (1) injury to the anterior superior temporal gyrus disrupts sentence comprehension, especially of grammar (2) injury of the posterior superior temporal gyrus affects echoic verbal memory, producing Wernicke's aphasia (3) damage to the posterior temporal lobe and underlying


Are children who speak two languages smarter than those who know only one The research suggests yes there are cognitive advantages for bilingual children. They score as high or higher on IQ tests. They score higher than their single language peers on grammar and written prose. They also perform better on nonlinguistic tasks such as the ability to maintain selective attention and resist distractions.

Speech and Language

Tests for aphasia may evaluate many aspects of speech and language, such as grammar, syntax, word finding, naming, auditory comprehension, reading, writing, articulation, presence of para-phasic errors, and other modalities (Table 7-5). The lengthier and rather inclusive batteries include the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE) and the Porch Index. These tests take from 1 to 3 hours to complete. The Western Aphasia Battery includes many of the tasks in the BDAE but is shorter and perhaps easier for the physician to understand, because it parallels a typical bedside test of language. The Token Test, with its large and small circles and squares of 4 colors, picks up more subtle impairments in comprehension and prepositional language. Tools for assessing functional communication usually require approximately a 15-minute examination. For example, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association recommended its 43-item rating scale that includes social communication, expressing...

Cultural Views

In more modern examples, Ernesto Bernal found that Mexican-Americans did not give much importance to grades, a large vocabulary, and good grammar as indicative of gifted-ness. Instead, they valued things like liveliness and being able to make it in the Anglo world. Jean Peterson found that Latino, African American, Native American, immigrant Asian, and low-income Anglo groups viewed giftedness differently from each other and differently from mainstream teachers. Although each group differed in its focus, she found some common themes in the language of these groups when describing gifted people. They tended to put more emphasis on helping in the family and community, including leadership, building and art skills, and nonbook knowledge. Two of the groups valued not displaying what one knows, with the Native American group refusing to identify anyone as gifted. Likewise, in Asia, the proverb, The nail that sticks up will be hammered down, reflects a view that one should try to blend in...

Complex Sentences

What enables a child to jump from two words to a six-word sentence In a word grammar. Sentences that include adjectives, possessive parts of speech, and pronouns in addition to nouns and verbs require knowledge of grammar, also called syntax. Both refer to how words are put together to create a certain meaning. When a 3-year-old expands her vocabulary by learning new words, she puts together phonemes that are the sounds of morphemes, which are the smallest parts of a language such as syllables, articles, verb tenses, and plurals.

Fast Mapping

A fascinating new area of recent research focuses on precisely how a budding 2-year-old speaker acquires the rules of word usage and syntax. Certainly you've long known that children learn many words from listening to and mimicking the speech of their older siblings and parents. But, the neurologists say, there's more to it than simple imitation. Grammar is too complex a process to acquire by simple rote repetition of what a baby hears. And then there's the fact that deaf children babble many syllables without hearing. This implies they have some sort of wiring for speech that needs no input from their environment.


Again the acceptability of word combinations is a clear-cut matter either the feature specifications are compatible, or they are not. Within this tradition, the essence of metaphor is captured by the notion of a violation of a selection restriction. The approach taken by Botha (1968) with regard to these violations is representative of a whole generation of linguists. Botha distinguished between novel, creative metaphors, and established, or dead metaphors. Novel metaphors, Botha claimed, lie outside the study of a speaker's competence, and thus outside the scope of linguistics proper. Competence has to do with a speaker's 'rule-governed creativity', not his 'rule-changing creativity' (1968 200). By violating a rule, a speaker is in effect going beyond his competence, thus changing his grammar. But once a metaphorical expression has been created, the speaker's internalized rule system is thereby modified. Metaphor thus ceases to be an instance of...

Signs of Complexity

Another step forward is the grammatical feat called embedded sentences, or putting one thought inside another. The girl went home to change clothes expands to The girl who got wet went home to change clothes. By the age of 5 or 6, children know up to 14,000 words. They are using most of the grammatical rules of their native language without having taken a single grammar lesson


As was the case with the grammatical categories of Chapter 10, the focus of this chapter harks back to one of the concerns of pre-generative linguistics. Robins (1964 190), speaking for descriptivist structuralism, characterized grammar as the 'description and analysis of structures in terms of recurrent elements and patterns'. It was, furthermore, well known that structural patterns exhibited prototype effects (cf. Quirk 1965). But, with the advent of the generative paradigm, constructions ceased to be a focus of interest. One could even say that the paradigm denied to constructions the status of theoretical entities altogether. Constructions were merely 'epiphe-nomena' (Lakoff 1987 467), the by-product, as it were, of phrase structure and transformational rules. Cognitive linguists, in contrast, recognize the syntactic construction as a fundamental unit of syntactic description. Important landmarks in the rediscovery of the construction are Lakoffs (1977) paper on linguistic...

Cerebral Processing

Leonard Bernstein believed that there was a musical grammar that parallels speech grammar, and he devoted much of his 1973 Harvard lectures to descriptions of the former from the musician's point of view (see 'Whither Music '). Ani Patel, John Iverson, and Jason Rosenberg used a somewhat different

Whither Music

This was 'the unanswered question' discussed by Leonard Bernstein in his six lectures at Harvard in 1973, published in book form in 1976 (see The Harmonic Series'). Bernstein's thesis was that people are born with an innate musical grammar, which is universal regardless of culture, in the same way that theorists such as Noam Chomsky claim that there is a universal grammar underlying human speech. How the language or music skills develop is influenced by aspects such as culture, history and individual creativity. Bernstein developed his ideas by pointing out that music comprises mathematically measurable elements such as frequencies, durations, decibels and intervals, as does language. He presented many examples of musical structures, phonology, syntax, semantics, and ambiguities. Does this mean that the science of music has now been fully explained, and that the original question 'whither music ' has been addressed Surely not, as even a full understanding of the technicalities of an...

Clinical Features

Declines in language functions are also reported, especially categorical fluency and naming (Albert et al., 2001, Albert and Moss, 2002 Bondi et al., 1996 Nebes, 1997). In early to middle AD, patients often have empty speech, full of vague generalities, or speech lacking in information content. Patients with AD may make paraphasic errors (i.e., substitute incorrect sounds or words for intended sounds or words) in speaking and in writing. With disease progression, AD patients develop comprehension difficulties. As the disease becomes severe, echolalia, palilalia, and eventually mutism are seen. The language deficit in AD appears to be primarily semantic, that is, related to the ability to comprehend and communicate meaning. Syntax, or grammar, is retained (Nebes, 1997). Simple attentional skills, including focusing and alertness, are usually retained early in the disease but more complex attentional tasks, such as divided attention, are impaired (Bondi et al., 1996 Nebes, 1997). In...

Concluding remarks

In the EST version of generative grammar outlined in Section 10.2, the constructions of a language are the output of transformational rules which operate on initial phrase markers, which in turn are the output of the categorial rules of the base. On this view, knowing a construction means, above all, knowing the rules which generate it. On the constructionist account, constructions are not generated, they are individually learnt as pairings of formal conditions with a semantic specification. Also included in the knowledge of a construction is a measure of the construction's productivity, as well as an indication of its formal and semantic relationships with other constructions.5

Phoneme categories

These are sounds which replace t in certain morphological environments. For instance, the t of president is replaced by J in presidential and by in presidency. The exclusion of f and s as members of V is in line with the distinction between what Bloomfield called 'automatic' alternations and 'non-automatic', or 'grammatical' alternations (Bloomfield 1930 21 Iff.), i.e. between phonological alternations proper, and morphophonological alternations. It is well known that generative phonology has tended to handle phonological and morphophonological alternations by the same component of the grammar it has regarded them, in other words, as the same kind of phenomena. The distinction, however, was taken as self-evident in pre-generative days (although, as with so many other distinctions, there are borderline cases which are difficult to classify), and it has recently been revived by proponents of so-called natural phonology. Morphophonological alternations Bloomfield's...


How plausible is the view that the adult number faculty presupposes linguistic mediation Recall that, on this view, children infer the generative structure of number from the generative structure of grammar when they hear others counting. However, counting systems vary cross-linguistically, and in a language like English, their recursive properties are not really obvious from the outset. Specifically, until number eleven, the English counting system presents no evidence of regularity, much less of generativity A child hearing one, two, three, four, five, six, up to eleven, would have no reason to assume - based on properties of form - that the corresponding numbers are lawfully related (namely, that they successively increase by one). For larger numbers, the system is more regular, even though not fully recursive because of the presence of several idiosyncratic features (e.g., one can say eighteen or nineteen but not tenteen for twenty). In sum, it is not so clear how the productive...

Download Instructions for The Farlex Grammar Book

The Farlex Grammar Book is not for free and currently there is no free download offered by the author.

Download Now