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Potentiation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by perfume and phytoncid. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 63(4) 743-748. Asakura, K., Y. Matsuo, T. Oshima, et al., 2000. V-Agatoxin IVA-sensitive Ca2+ channel blocker, a-eudesmol, protects against brain injury after focal ischemia in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 394 57-65. Ashton, H., J.E. Millman, R. Telford, and J.W. Thompson, 1977. The use of event-related slow potentials of the human brain as an...

References

The FEMA GRAS assessment of alicyclic substances used as flavour ingredients. Food Chem. Toxicol., 34 763-828. Ammon, H.P.T., 1989. Phytotherapeutika in der Kneipp-therapie. Therapiewoche, 39 117-127. Anderson, C., et al., 2000. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema. Phytother. Res., 14 452-456. Arctander, S., 1960. Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin. Elizabeth, NJ S Arctander. Armstrong, F. and V. Heidingsfeld, 2000....

Clinical Studies Of Aromatherapy

Very few scientific clinical studies on the effectiveness of aromatherapy have been published to date. Perhaps the main reason is that until recently scientists were not involved and people engaging in aromatherapy clinical studies had accepted the aromatherapy doctrine in its entirety, precluding any possibility of a nonbiased study. This has been evident in the design and execution of the studies the main criterion has usually been the use of massage with essential oils and not the effect of...

Commonest Allergenic Essential Oils and Components

The most common fragrance components causing allergy are cinnamic alcohol, hydroxycitronellal, musk ambrette, isoeugenol, and geraniol (Scheinman, 1996). These are included in the eight commonest markers used to check for ACD, usually as a 2 mix. Other components considered allergenic are benzyl salicylate, sandalwood oil, anisyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, and coumarin. IFRA and RIFM have forbidden the use of several essential oils and components, including costus root oil, dihydrocoumarin, musk...

Contingent Negative Variation

The contingent negative variation (CNV) is a slow, negative event-related brain potential, which is generated when an imperative stimulus is preceded by a warning stimulus and reflects expectancy and preparation (Walter et al., 1964). The amplitude of the CNV is correlated to attention and arousal (Tecce, 1972). Since changes of the magnitude and latency of CNV components have long been associated with the effects of psychoactive drugs (Kopell et al., 1974 Ashton et al., 1977), measurement of...

Ntroduction

One of the first systematic in vitro examinations of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils dates back to the late nineteenth century when Buchholtz studied the growth inhibitory properties of caraway oil, thyme oil, phenol, and thymol on bacteria having been cultivated in a tabac decoction. In this examination, thymol turned out to be 10-fold stronger than phenol (Buchholtz, 1875), which was in use as surgical antiseptic at that time (Ashhurst, 1927). The German pharmacopoeia Deutsches...

Aromatherapy

The word perfume is derived from the Latin per fumare by smoke. The preparation of perfumes in Ancient Egypt was done by the priests, who passed on their knowledge to new priests (Manniche, 1989, 1999). Both high-class people like Nefertiti and Cleopatra used huge amounts of fragranced materials as unguents, powders, and perfumes and the workers building the great pyramids, who even went on strike when they were denied their allocation of aromatherapy massage oil (Manniche, 1999).

Info

(Piper nigrum) and Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense) were assessed applying the aforecited correlation method 78 . The odor profile of the essential oils of leaves and flowers of Hyptispectinata (L.) Poit. was also investigated by using the peak-to-odor impression correlation 79 . The choice of the GC-O method is of extreme importance for the correct characterization of a matrix, since the application of different methods to an identical real sample can distinctly select and rank the odor-active...

1-hydroxypulegone

FIGURE 14.205 Metabolic pathways of myrcene (302) and citronellene (309) by rat and microorganisms. Bhattacharyya, 1966 Dhavalikar et al., 1966 Ballal et al., 1967 Kayahara et al., 1973 Shima et al., 1972). a-Terpineol (34) is also formed from linalool (206). a-Pinene (4) is metabolized by five pathways as follows firstly, a-pinene (4) is metabolized to myrtenol (5), myrtenal (6), and myratenoic acid (7) (Shukla et al., 1968 Shukla and Bhattacharyya, 1968 Hungund et al., 1970 Ganapathy and...

Placebo Effect Of Aromatherapy

The placebo effect is an example of a real manifestation of mind over matter. It does not confine itself to alternative therapies, but there is a greater likelihood of the placebo effect accounting for over 90 of the effect in the latter (Millenson, 1995). Reasons for the potency of the placebo effect are either the patient's belief in the method the practitioner's belief in the method or the patient and practitioner's belief in each other, that is, the strength of their relationship (Weil,...

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In the following years, several additional techniques were developed and applied to essential oils analysis, including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) different kinds of counter-current chromatography (CCC) supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) including multidimensional coupling techniques, C-13 NMR, near infrared (NIR), and Raman spectroscopy and a multitude of so-called hyphenated techniques, which means on-line couplings of chromatographic separation devices to...

Medical Examinations

Although not employed in a treatment context, the antispasmodic activity of peppermint essential oil has been used to facilitate examinations of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. A few examples are highlighted below. Peppermint oil has also been used during double-contrast barium enemas. The study comprised 383 patients in four groups, two being no-treatment and Buscopan groups. The preparation, consisting of 8 mL of essential oil, 0.2 mL of Tween 80 in 100 mL water, was administered...

Acyclic Monoterpenoid

FIGURE 5.16 Some of the more common terpenoid hydrocarbons. b-pinene (76), and 3-carene (77) are all major constituents of turpentine from a wide range of pines, spruces, and firs. The pinenes are often found in other oils, 3-carene less so. Like the pinenes, cam-phene (89) is widespread in nature. Simple hydrolysis of geranyl pyrophosphate gives geraniol, (E)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienol (63). This is often accompanied in nature by its geometric isomer, nerol (90). Synthetic material is usually...

Use Of Essential Oils Mainly As Chemical Agents And Not For Their Odor

The efficacy and safety of capsules containing peppermint oil (90 mg) and caraway oil (50 mg), when studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial in patients with nonulcer dyspepsia was shown by May et al. (1996). Intensity of pain was significantly improved for the experimental group compared with the placebo group after 4 weeks. Six drops of pure lavender oil included in the bath water for 10 days following childbirth was assessed against synthetic lavender oil and a...

Increase in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Recent Years

A study of 1600 adults in 1987 showed that 12 reacted adversely to cosmetics and toiletries, 4.3 of which were used for their odor (i.e., they contained high levels of fragrances). Respiratory problems worsened with prolonged fragrance exposure (e.g., at cosmetic perfumery counters) and even in churches. In another study, 32 of the women tested had adverse reactions and 80 of these had positive skin tests for fragrances (deGroot and Frosch, 1987). Problems with essential oils have also been...

Hugo Bovill

The essential oil industry is highly complex and fragmented. There are at least 100 different producing countries, as can be seen from the map Essential Oils of the World (Figure 20.1). Many of these producing countries have been active in these materials for many decades. They are often involved in essential oils due to historical colonization, for example, clove oil from Madagascar has traditionally been purchased via France, nutmeg from Indonesia through Holland, and West Indian and Chinese...

Middle Ages Use of Aromatics and Quacks

In the twelfth century, the Benedictine Abbess Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) was authorized by the Church to publish her visions on medicine (Causae et Curae), dealing with the causes and remedies for illness (Brunn and Epiney-Burgard, 1989). The foul smell of refuse in European towns in the seventeenth century was thought to be the major cause of disease, including the plague (Classen et al., 1994), and aromatics were used for both preventing and in some cases curing diseases herbs such as...

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NB, DMSO, 24 h, 37 C NA, 1-3 d, 30 C Cited MHA, Tween 20, 48 h, 35 C NB, Tween20, 18 h, 37 C MHB, cited 625 > 6000 > 6000 2000 2000 2000 50-100 > 1000 2000 12,500 2000 2000 14 inh. 10,000 250 2000 50-100 > 1000 2000 20,000 Angioni et al. (2004) Farag et al. (1989) Pellecuer et al. (1976) Hammer et al. (1999) Yousef and Tawil (1980) Pellecuer et al. (1980) Angioni et al. (2004) Pellecuer et al. (1976) Pellecuer et al. (1980) Pellecuer et al. (1980) Pellecuer et al. (1976) Shapiro et al....

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Haemoglobin, 256 Hairy fingerleaf, 249 Halogenated hydrocarbons and heavy metals, determination of, 154 Hansenula anomala, 824, 825 Harvest, timing of, 91-92 Harvesting, 71 Hassk, 272 Hazard classification and labeling, of flavors and fragrance, 935-939 Hazard Communication Working Group, 910 Headspace sorptive extraction, 10-11 Headspace techniques, 8, 88 dynamic method, 8-10 static method, 8 Heart-cutting technique, 15 Hedeoma pulegoides, 225 Hedychium, 272 Hela, 237, 239 Helianthus annuus,...

Pirtp

FIGURE 10.1 Macroscopic view of the human ventral forebrain and medial temporal lobes, depicting the olfactory tract, its primary projections, and surrounding nonolfactory structures. The right medial temporal lobe has been resected horizontally through the mid-portion of the amygdala (AM) to expose the olfactory cortex. AON, anterior olfactory nucleus CP, cerebral peduncle EA, entorhinal area G, gyrus ambiens L, limen insula los, lateral olfactory sulcus MB, mammillary body mos, medial...

Introduction To Aromatherapy Concepts

The original concept of modern aromatherapy was based on the assumption that the volatile, fat-soluble essential oil was equivalent in bioactivity to that of the whole plant when inhaled or massaged onto the skin. Information about the medicinal and other properties of the plants was taken from old English herbals (e.g., Culpeper, 1653), combined with some more esoteric nuances involving the planets and astrology (Tisserand, 1977). This notion is clearly flawed. As an example, a whole orange...

Modern Analytical Techniques

Most of the methods applied in the analysis of essential oils rely on chromatographic procedures, which enable component separation and identification. However, additional confirmatory evidence is required for reliable identification, avoiding equivocated characterizations. In the early stages of research in the essential oil field, attention was devoted to the development of methods in order to acquire deeper knowledge on the profiles of volatiles however, this analytical task was made...

Recent Clinical Studies 13191 Aromatherapy in Dementia

A meticulously conducted double-blind study involved 72 dementia patients with clinically significant agitation treated with melissa oil (Ballard et al., 2002). Agitation included anxiety and irritability, motor restlessness, and abnormal vocalization symptoms that often lead to disturbed behaviors such as pacing, wandering, aggression, shouting, and night-time disturbance, all characterized by appropriate inventories. Ten percent (by weight) melissa oil (active) or sunflower oil (placebo),...

The Guide And Example For The Safety Evaluation Of Essential Oils

The guide does not employ criteria commonly used for the safety evaluation of individual chemical substances. Instead, it is a procedure involving a comprehensive evaluation of the chemical and biological properties of the constituents and congeneric groups of an essential oil. Constituents in the oil that are of known structure are organized into congeneric groups that exhibit similar metabolic and toxicologic properties. The congeneric groups are further classified according to levels...

Pediculicidal Activity

The activity of essential oils against the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, has been investigated in a number of reports. Numerous essential oils have been found to exhibit pediculicidal activity in vitro, with common oils such as Eucalyptus globulus, Origanum marjo-rana, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Elettaria cardamomum being comparable to, or more effective than d-phenothrin and pyrethrum (Yang et al., 2004). Melaleuca alternifolia and Lavandula angustifolia have also been found to...

Physiological And Psychological Responses To Essential Oils And psychophysiology

Many examples of essential oil effects abound in animal studies, for example, the sedative action of lavender on the overall activity of mice decreased when exposed to lavender vapor (Lavandula angustifolia P. Miller) its components linalool and linalyl acetate showed a similar effect (Buchbauer et al., 1992). A possible explanation for the observed sedative effects was shown by Linalool, which produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the binding of glutamate (an excitatory neurotransmitter in...

Functional Dyspepsia

Several essential oils have been used in the treatment of functional (nonulcer) dyspepsia. All of the published trials have concerned the commercial preparation known as Enteroplant , an enteric-coated capsule containing 90 mg of Mentha x piperita, and 50 mg of Carum carvi essential oils. The combination of peppermint and caraway essential oils has been shown to act locally in the gut as an antispasmodic (Micklefield et al., 2000, 2003) and to have a relaxing effect on the gallbladder (Goerg...

Ear Mites

Peppermint oil is applied to a Q-tip and swabbed inside of the ear. A patent (United States Patent 6800294) on an antiparasitic formulation comprising eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus), cajeput oil (Melaleuca cajeputi), lemongrass oil, clove bud oil (Syzigium aromaticum), peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), piperonyl, and piperonyl butoxide. The formulation can be used for treating an animal body, in the manufacture of a medicament for treating ectopara-sitic infestation of an animal, or for...

Internal Usage Of Essential Oils By Aromatherapists

Oral intake of essential oils is not true aromatherapy as the odor has virtually no effect past the mouth and the effect of the chemical components takes over as odors cannot influence the internal organs (Lis-Balchin, 1998a). Therapy with essential oils is dealt with in another chapter. Most aro-matherapists consider that essential oils should only be prescribed by primary care practitioners such as medical doctors or medical herbalists who have intimate knowledge of essential oil toxicology...

Research During The Last Half Century

2.2.1 Essential Oil Preparation Techniques The vast majority of essential oils are produced from plant material in which they occur by different kinds of distillation or by cold pressing in the case of the peel oils from citrus fruits. In water- or hydrodistillation, the chopped plant material is submerged and in direct contact with boiling water. In steam distillation, the steam is produced in a boiler separate of the still and blown through a pipe into the bottom of the still, where the plant...

Psychopharmacology Of Essential Oils

Domingos Savio Nunes, Viviane de Moura Linck, Adriana Lourengo da Silva, Micheli Figueiro, and Elaine Elisabetsky The use of aromas goes back to ancient times, as implied by the nearly 200 references in the Bible relating the use of aromas for mental, spiritual, and physical healing (Perry and Perry, 2006). It is currently accepted that aromas and some of its individual components may in fact possess pharmacological and or psychological properties, and in many instances the overall effect is...

Scientifically Accepted Benefits of Essential Oils versus the Lack of Evidence for Aromatherapy

There is virtually no scientific evidence, as yet, regarding the direct action of essential oils, applied through massage on the skin, on specific internal organs rather than through the odor pathway leading into the mid-brain's limbic system and then through the normal sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. This is despite some evidence that certain components of essential oils can be absorbed either through the skin or lungs (Buchbauer et al., 1992 Jager et al., 1992 Fuchs et al., 1997)....

Notion Of Bucco-dental Superinfections

11.1 Introduction 11.2 Acaricidal activity 11.3 Anticarcinogenic 11.4 Antimicrobial 11.4.1 Antibacterial 11.4.1.1 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 11.4.2 Antifungal 11.4.3 Antiviral 11.4.4 Microbes of the Oral Cavity 11.4.4.1 Activity of Listerine against Plaque and or Gingivitis 11.4.4.2 Antiviral Listerine 11.4.4.3 Activity of Essential Oils 11.4.5 Controlling Microflora in Atopic Dermatitis 11.4.6 Odor Management for Fungating Wounds 11.5 Dissolution of Hepatic and Renal Stones...

Table 191

Essential Oil Monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia (6.5 Edition, 2009) Cinnamon bark oil, Ceylon Cinnamon leaf oil, Ceylon Citronella oil Clarysage oil Clove oil Coriander oil Dwarf pine oil Eucalyptus oil Juniper oil Lavender oil Lemon oil Mandarin oil Matricaria oil bitter-orange flower oil) Nutmeg oil Peppermint oil Pine silvestris oil Rosemary oil Spanish sage oil Spike lavender oil Star anise oil Sweet orange oil Carvi aetheroleum Cinnamomi cassiae aetheroleum Cinnamomi zeylanici...

Contents

3.1 Essential Oil-Bearing Plants Attempt of a Definition 3.2 Phytochemical Variation 3.2.1 Chemotaxonomy 3.2.2 Inter- and Intraspecific Variation 3.2.2.1 Lamiaceae (Labiatae) and Verbenaceae 3.2.2.2 Asteraceae (Compositae) 3.3 Identification of Source Materials 3.4 Genetic and Protein Engineering 3.5 Resources of Essential Oils Wild Collection or Cultivation of Plants 3.5.1 Wild Collection and Sustainability 3.5.2 Domestication and Systematic Cultivation 3.5.3 Factors Influencing the Production...

Terpenoids

The terpenoids are, by far, the most important group of natural products as far as essential oils are concerned. Some authors, particularly in older literature, refer to them as terpenes but this term is nowadays restricted to the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons. They are defined as substances composed of isoprene (2-methylbutadiene) units. Isoprene (62) is not often found in essential oils and is not actually an intermediate in biosynthesis, but the 2-methylbutane skeleton is easily discernable in...

Aromatherapy Aromatology and Aromachology

Aromatherapy can now be divided into three sciences aromatherapy, aromatology, and aromachology. Aromachology coined by the Sense of Smell Institute (SSI), USA, 1982 is based on the interrelationship of psychology and odor, that is, its effect on specific feelings (e.g., relaxation, exhilaration, sensuality, happiness, and achievement) by its direct effect on the brain. Aromatherapy is defined by the SSI as the therapeutic effects of aromas on physical conditions (such as menstrual disorders,...

Hazard Classification And Labeling Of Flavors And Fragrances

This section describes the rules for hazard classification and labeling of F& F substances and preparations, including natural raw materials, such as extracts and essential oils, containing hazardous constituents, according to the EU regulations. For trade of F& F (including pure substances and mixtures or preparations thereof and natural raw materials) within the European Union, certain rules apply within the European Industry which are established by the European Flavour and Fragrance...

First Systematic Investigations

The first systematic investigations of constituents from essential oils may be attributed to the French chemist M. J. Dumas (1800-1884) who analyzed some hydrocarbons and oxygen as well as sulfur-and nitrogen-containing constituents. He published his results in 1833. The French researcher M. Berthelot (1859) characterized several natural substances and their rearrangement products by optical rotation. However, the most important investigations have been performed by O. Wallach, an assistant of...

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Strong demand currently for orange 08 of d origins 33 we react) a period of (ire year where Florida plants are off season and Brazil is jus( beginning processing but oi of acceptable aldehyde e not yet avaiable in volume for shipment from Brail. The Brazilian crop this year is expected to be a very similar size to last season wliich is the first time the biannual cycle has been broken for 3 years. Better crop management including increased irrigation of groves and favourable weaither conditions...

Essential Oils Used In Animal Feed

Essential oils can be used in feed as appetite stimulant, stimulant of saliva production, gastric and pancreatic juices production enhancer, and antimicrobial and antioxidant to improve broiler performance. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils are well documented. Essential oils due to their potent nature should be used as low as possible levels in animal nutrition. Otherwise, they can lead to feed intake reduction, gastrointestinal (GIT) microflora disturbance, or accumulation in animal...

Chamomile Zloty Lan Analysis

Bessiere, 2004. Aromatic plants of tropical Africa XLIX Chemical composition of essential oils of the leaf and rhizome of Aframomum giganteum K. Schum from Gabun. Flavour Fragr. J., 19 205-209. Akhila, A. and M. Rani, 2002. Chemical constituents and essential oil biogenesis in Vetiveria zizanioides. In Vetiveria The genus Vetiveria, M. Maffei (ed.), pp. 73-109. New York Taylor & Francis. Aiello, N., F. Scartezzini, C. Vender, L. D'Andrea, and A. Albasini,...

Changing Trends

Until the second half of the nineteenth century, formulas of perfumes and flavors (although much less data are available on flavoring products in history) were based on essential oils and some other naturals (musk, civet, amber, resins, pomades, tinctures, extracts, etc.). Now, some 150 years later, old formulations are being taken out of historical books and are advertised as the back to nature trend. Perfumery handbooks published until the early twentieth century listed essential oils, and...

Limonene Rowatinex

Asztemborska, 2002. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods., 54 187-195. Source Sybilska, D. and M. Asztemborska, 2002. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods., 54 187-195. in fact they are different. The compositions have changed slightly over the years and the most recently disclosed are shown in Table 11.1. Rowachol has been in use for over 50 years for the dissolution of gallstones and biliary tract stones. There have been many published works on its effects and at least one...

Essential Oils Used In Treating Diseases In Animals

There is scarce scientific information on the use of essential oils in treating diseases in animals. Generally, the oils used in treating diseases in humans are also recommended for animals. Internet literature is abound with valid and or suspicious information in this issue. We have tried to compile relevant information using the reachable resources. The information may not be concise or comprehensive but should be seen as an effort to combine the available information in a short period of...