Essential

11 ^ Science, Technology, ^^ | LO and Applications

Edited by

K. Hüsnü Can Ba$er Gerhard Buchbauer

CRC Press

Taylor & Francis Group

Boca Raton London New York

CRC Press is an imprint of the

Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

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International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4200-6315-8 (Hardback)

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Handbook of essential oils : science, technology, and applications / K. Husnu Can Baser, Gerhard Buchbauer. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4200-6315-8 (hardcover : alk. paper)

1. Essences and essential oils--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Buchbauer, Gerhard. II. Title. QD416.7.B37 2010

661'.806--dc22 2009038020

Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www.taylorandfrancis.com

and the CRC Press Web site at http://www.crcpress.com

Contents

Editors ix

Contributors xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

K.Hüsnü Can Basier and Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 2 History and Sources of Essential Oil Research 3

Karl-Heinz Kubeczka

Chapter 3 Sources of Essential Oils 39

Chlodwig Franz and Johannes Novak

Chapter 4 Production of Essential Oils 83

Erich Schmidt

Chapter 5 Chemistry of Essential Oils 121

Charles Sell

Chapter 6 Analysis of Essential Oils 151

Barbara d'Acampora Zellner, Paola Dugo, Giovanni Dugo, and Luigi Mondello

Chapter 7 Safety Evaluation of Essential Oils: A Constituent-Based Approach 185

Timothy B. Adams and Sean V. Taylor

Chapter 8 Metabolism of Terpenoids in Animal Models and Humans 209

Walter Jäger

Chapter 9 Biological Activities of Essential Oils 235

Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 10 Effects of Essential Oils in the Central Nervous System 281

10.1 Central Nervous System Effects of Essential Oils in

Humans 281

Eva Heuberger

10.2 Psychopharmacology of Essential Oils 297

Domingos Savio Nunes, Viviane de Moura Linck, Adriana Lourengo da Silva, Micheli Figueiro, and Elaine Elisabetsky

Chapter 11 Phytotherapeutic Uses of Essential Oils 315

Bob Harris

Chapter 12 In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils Monographed in the

European Pharmacopoeia 6th Edition 353

Alexander Pauli and Heinz Schilcher

Chapter 13 Aromatherapy with Essential Oils 549

Maria Lis-Balchin

Chapter 14 Biotransformation of Monoterpenoids by Microorganisms, Insects, and Mammals 585

Yoshiaki Noma and Yoshinori Asakawa

Chapter 15 Biotransformation of Sesquiterpenoids, Ionones, Damascones, Adamantanes, and Aromatic Compounds by Green Algae, Fungi, and Mammals 737

Yoshinori Asakawa and Yoshiaki Noma

Chapter 16 Industrial Uses of Essential Oils 843

Chapter 17 Encapsulation and Other Programmed Release Techniques for Essential Oils and Volatile Terpenes 855

Jan Karlsen

Chapter 18 Aroma-Vital Cuisine 863

Maria M. Kettenring and Lara-M. Vucemilovic Geeganage

Chapter 19 Essential Oils Used in Veterinary Medicine 881

K. Husnu Can Baser and Chlodwig Franz

Chapter 20 Trade of Essential Oils 895

Hugo Bovill

Chapter 21 Storage and Transport of Essential Oils 903

Klaus-Dieter Protzen

Chapter 22 Recent EU Legislation on Flavors and Fragrances and Its Impact on

Essential Oils 917

Jan C.R. Demyttenaere

Index 949

Editors

K. Husnu Can Ba§er was born on July 15, 1949 in Qankm, Turkey. He graduated from the Eskisehir I.T.I.A. School of Pharmacy with diploma number 1 in 1972 and became a research assistant in the pharmacognosy department of the same school. He did his PhD in pharmacognosy between 1974 and 1978 at Chelsea College of the University of London.

Upon returning home, he worked as a lecturer in pharmacognosy at the school he had earlier graduated, and served as director of Eskisehir I.T.I.A. School of Chemical Engineering between 1978 and 1980. He was promoted to associate professorship in pharmacognosy in 1981.

He served as dean of the faculty of pharmacy at Anadolu University (1993-2001), vice-dean of the faculty of pharmacy (1982-1993), head of the department of professional pharmaceutical sciences (1982-1993), head of the pharmacognosy section (1982-present), member of the University Board and Senate (1982-2001; 2007), and director of the Medicinal and Aromatic Plant and Drug Research Centre (TBAM) (1980-2002) in Anadolu University.

During 1984-1994, he was appointed as the national project coordinator of Phase I and Phase II of the UNDP/UNIDO projects of the government of Turkey titled "Production of Pharmaceutical Materials from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants," through which TBAM had been strengthened.

He was promoted to full professorship in pharmacognosy in 1987. His major areas of research include essential oils, alkaloids, and biological, chemical, pharmacological, technological, and biological activity research into natural products. He is the 1995 Recipient of the Distinguished Service Medal of IFEAT (International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades) based in London, United Kingdom and the 2005 recipient of "Science Award" (Health Sciences) of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). He has published 537 papers in international refereed journals (378 in SCI journals), 105 papers in Turkish journals, and 134 papers in conference proceedings.

For more information: http://www.khcbaser.com

Gerhard Buchbauer was born in 1943 in Vienna, Austria. He studied pharmacy at the University of Vienna, from where he received his master's degree (Mag.pharm.) in May 1966. In September 1966, he assumed the duties of university assistant at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and received his doctorate (PhD) in pharmacy and philosophy in October 1971 with a thesis on synthetic fragrance compounds. Further scientific education was practised as post doc in the team of Professor C.H. Eugster at the Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Zurich (1977-1978), followed by the habilitation (post doctoral lecture qualification) in Pharmaceutical Chemistry with the inaugural dissertation entitled "Synthesis of Analogies of Drugs and Fragrance Compounds with Contributions to Structure-Activity-Relationships" (1979) and appointment to the permanent staff of the University of Vienna, and head of the first department of the Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry. In November 1991, he was appointed as a full

professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Vienna; in 2002, he was elected as head of this institute. He retired in October 2008. He is married since 1973 and was a father of a son since 1974.

Among others, he is still a member of the permanent scientific committee of ISEO, a member of the scientific committee of Forum Cosmeticum (1990, 1996, 2002, and 2008), a member of editorial boards (e.g., Journal of Essential Oil Research, The International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics, Scientia Pharmaceutica, etc.), assistant editor of Flavour and Fragrance Journal, regional editor of Eurocosmetics, a member of many scientific societies, for example, Society of Austrian Chemists, head of its working group "Food Chemistry, Cosmetics, and Tensides" (20002004), Austrian Pharmaceutical Society, Austrian Phytochemical Society, vicehead of Austrian Society of Scientific Aromatherapy, and so on, technical advisor of IFEAT (1992-2008), and organizer of the 27th ISEO (September 2006, in Vienna) together with Professor Dr. Ch. Franz.

Based on the sound interdisciplinary education of pharmacists, it was possible to establish almost completely neglected area of fragrance and flavor chemistry as a new research discipline within the pharmaceutical sciences. Our research team is the only one that conducts fragrance research in its entirety and covers synthesis, computer-aided fragrance design, analysis, and pharmaceutical/ medicinal aspects. Because of our efforts, it is possible to show and to prove that these small molecules possess more properties than merely emitting a good odor. Now, this "Viennese Centre of Flavour research" has gained a worldwide scientific reputation documented by more than 400 scientific publications, about 100 invited lectures, and about 200 contributions to symposia, meetings, and congresses, as short lectures and poster presentations.

Contributors

Timothy B. Adams

Flavor & Extract Manufacturers Association Washington, DC

Yoshinori Asakawa

Tokushima Bunri University Tokushima, Japan

Department of Pharmacognosy Anadolu University Eskisehir, Turkey

Hugo Bovill

Treatt PLC Bury St. Edmunds Suffolk, United Kingdom

Warsaw University of Technology and

Pollena-Aroma Ltd Warsaw, Poland

Gerhard Buchbauer

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and

Diagnostics University of Vienna Vienna, Austria

Jan C. R. Demyttenaere

European Flavour and Fragrance Association

(EFFA) Brussels, Belgium

Giovanni Dugo

Department of Drug-Chemical University of Messina Messina, Italy

Paola Dugo

Department of Food Science and the

Environment University of Messina Messina, Italy

Elaine Elisabetsky

Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology The Federal University of

Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre, Brazil

Micheli Figueiro

Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology The Federal University of

Rio Grande do Sul Porto Alegre, Brazil

Chlodwig Franz

Institute for Applied Botany and

Pharmacognosy University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna Vienna, Austria

Bob Harris

SARL Essential Oil Consultants Provence, France

Eva Heuberger

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and

Diagnostics University of Vienna Vienna, Austria

Walter Jäger

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and

Diagnostics University of Vienna Vienna, Austria

Jan Karlsen

Department of Pharmaceutics University of Oslo Oslo, Norway

Maria M. Kettenring

Neu-Isenburg, Germany

Karl-Heinz Kubeczka

Untere Steigstrasse Germany

Viviane de Moura Linck

Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology

The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

Porto Alegre, Brazil

Maria Lis-Balchin

South Bank University London, United Kingdom

Luigi Mondello

Department of Drug-Chemical University of Messina Messina, Italy and

Campus-Biomedical Rome, Italy

Yoshiaki Noma

Tokushima Bunri University Tokushima, Japan

Johannes Novak

Institute for Applied Botany and

Pharmacognosy University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna Vienna, Austria

Domingos Savio Nunes

Departament of Chemistry State University of Ponta Grossa Ponta Grossa, Brazil

Alexander Pauli

ReviewScience Zirndorf, Germany

Klaus-Dieter Protzen

Paul Kaders GmbH Hamburg, Germany

Heinz Schilcher

Immenstadt, Allgäu, Germany

Erich Schmidt

Nördlingen, Germany and

Kurt Kitzing GmbH Wallerstein, Germany

Charles Sell

Givaudan UK Ltd. Ashford, Kent, England

Adriana Lourenço da Silva

Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology

The Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

Porto Alegre, Brazil

Sean V. Taylor

Flavor & Extract Manufacturers Association Washington, DC

Lara M. Vucemilovic

Neu-Isenburg, Germany

Barbara d'Acampora Zellner

Department of Drug-Chemical University of Messina Messina, Italy

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