Flavors

Over the same time period, another group of users of essential oils entered the markets. In 1790, the term "soda water" for carbon dioxide saturated water as a new drink appeared for the first time in the United States and in 1810, the first U.S. patent was issued for the manufacture of imitations of natural gaseous mineral waters. Only 9 years later the "soda fountain" was patented by Samuel Fahnestock. In 1833, carbonated lemonade flavored with lemon juice and citric acid was on sale in England. In 1835, the first bottled soda water appeared in the United States. It is, however, interesting that the first flavored sparkling drink—Ginger Ale—was created in Ireland in 1851. The milestones in flavored soft drinks appeared 30 years later: 1881—the first cola-flavored drink in the United States; 1885—Dr Pepper was invented by Charles Aderton in Waco, Texas; 1886—Coca-Cola by Dr John S. Pemberton in Atlanta, Georgia; and in 1898—Pepsi-Cola, created by Caleb Bradham, known from 1893 as "Brad's Drink."

Dr Pepper was advertised as the king of beverages, free from caffeine (which was added to it later on), was flavored with black cherry artificial flavor, and was first sold in the Old Corner Drug Store owned by Wade Morrison. Its market success and position as one of the most popular U.S. soft drinks started by a presentation during the St Louis World's Fair, where some other important flavor-consuming products—ice cream cones, hot dog rolls, and hamburger buns—were also shown. All of them remain major users of natural flavors based on essential oils. Hundred years later after the merger with another famous lemon-lime drink 7UP in 1986, it finally became a part of Cadbury.

Dr. John Pemberton was a pharmacist and he mixed up a combination of lime, cinnamon, coca leaves, and cola to make the flavor for his famous drink, first as a remedy against headache (Pemberton French Wine Coca) and then reformulated according to the prohibition law and used it to add taste to soda water from his "soda fountain." The unique name and logo was created by his bookkeeper Frank Robinson and Coca-Cola was advertised as a delicious, exhilarating, refreshing and invigorating temperance drink. Interestingly, the first year of sales resulted in $20 loss, as the cost of the flavor syrup used for the drink was higher than the total sales of $50. In 1887, another pharmacist, Asa Candler, bought the idea and with aggressive marketing in 10 years introduced his drink all over the United States and Canada by selling syrup to other companies licensed to manufacture and retail the drink. Until 1905, Coca-Cola was known as a tonic drink and contained the extract of cocaine and cola nuts and with the flavoring of lime and sugar.

Like Pemberton, Caleb Bradham was a pharmacist and in his drugstore, he offered soda water from his "soda fountain." To promote sales, he flavored the soda with sugar, vanilla, pepsin, cola, and "rare oils"—obviously the essential oils of lemon and lime—and started selling it as a cure for dyspepsia, "Brad's Drink" than Pepsi-Cola.

The development of the soft drinks industry is of great importance because it is a major consumer of essential oils, especially those of citrus origin. It is enough to say that nowadays, according to their web pages, only Coca-Cola-produced beverages are consumed worldwide in a quantity exceeding 1 billion drinks per day. If we consider that the average content of the appropriate essential oil in the final drink is about 0.001-0.002%, and the standard drink is ca. 0.3 l (300 g), we approach a daily consumption of essential oils by this company alone at the level of 3-6 tons per day, which gives an annual usage well over 2000 tons. Although all other brands of the food industry use substantial quantities of essential oils in ice creams, confectionary, bakery, and a variety of fast foods (where spice oils are used), these together use less oils than the beverage manufacturers.

There is one special range of products that can be situated between the food and cosmetic-toiletries industry sectors and it is a big consumer of essential oils, especially of all kinds of mint, eucalyptus, and some other herbal and fruity oils. These are oral care products, chewing gums, and all kinds of mouth refreshing confectioneries. As mentioned above, toothpastes appeared on the market in the late nineteenth century in the the United States. Chewing gums or the custom of chewing certain plant secretions were known to the ancient Greeks (e.g., mastic tree resin) and to ancient Mayans (e.g., sapodilla tree gum). Chewing gum, as we know it now, started in America around 1850 when John B. Curtis introduced flavored chewing gum, which was first patented in 1859 by William Semple. In 1892, William Wrigley used chewing gum as a free gift with sales of baking powder in his business in Chicago and very soon he realized that chewing gum has real potential. In 1893, Juicy Fruit gum came into market and was followed in the same year by Wrigley's Spearmint; today, both products are known and consumed worldwide and their names are global trademarks.

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