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FIGURE 14.35 Biotransformation of (-)-limonene (68') by Citrus pathogenic fungi, Penicillium digitatum (Pers.; Fr.) Sacc. KCPYN. (Modified from Noma, Y. and Y. Asakawa, 2007b. Proc. 51st TEAC, pp. 299-301.)

pathogenic fungi Penicillium (Pers.; Fr.) Sacc. KCPYN and newly isolated red yeast, a kind of Rhodotorula sp. Penicillium digitatum KCPYN converted limonenes (68 and 68') to the corresponding isopiperitone (111 and 111'), 1a-hydroxy-1,8-cineole (125b and 125b'), limonene-1,2-trans-diol (71a and 71a'), p-menthane-1,2,8-triol (334 and 334'), and trans-sobrerol as main products. (+)- and (-)-a-Terpineol (34 and 34') were the precursors of 2a-hydroxy-1,8-cineole (125b and b') and p-menthane-1,2,8-triol (334). (+)- and (-)-Limonene-1,2-epoxide (69 and 69') were also the precursor of limonene-1,2-trans-diol (71a). Rhodotorula sp. also biotransformed (+)-and (-)-limonene (68 and 68') to the corresponding trans- and cis-carveols (81a and b) as main products. This microbe also converted caraway oil, equal mixture of (+)-limonene (68) and (+)-car-vone (93). (+)-Limonene (68) disappeared and (+)-carvone (93) was produced and accumulated in the cultured broth (Noma and Asakawa, 2007b).

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