Asakawa, Y., T. Ishida, M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto, 1986. Terpenoid biotransformation in mammals IV. Biotransformation of (+)-longifolene, (-)-caryophyllene, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (-)-cyclocolorenone, (+)-nootkatone, (-)-elemol, (-)-abietic and (+)-dehydroabietic acid in rabbits. Xenobiotica, 16: 753-767.

Asakawa, Y., Z. Tair, and T. Takemoto, 1981. X-ray crystal structure analysis of 14-hydroxycaryophyllene oxide, a new metabolite of (-)-caryophyllene, in rabbits. J. Pharm. Sci., 70: 710-711.

Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Ishida, 1988. Biotransformation of 1,4-cineole, a monoterpene ether. Xenobiotica, 18: 1129-1134.

Austgulen, L.T., E. Solheim, and R.R. Schelin, 1987. Metabolism in rats of p-cymene derivates: Carvacrol and thymol. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 61: 98-102.

Bang, L., G. Ourisson, and P. Teisseire, 1975. Hydroxylation of patchoulol by rabbits. Semisynthesis of nor-patchoulenol, the odour carrier of patchouli oil. Tetrahedron Lett. 26: 2211-2214.

Bickers, D., P. Calow, H. Greim, J.M. Hanifin, A.E. Rogers, J.H. Saurat, I.G. Sipes, R.L. Smith, and H. Tagami, 2003. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of linalool and related esters when used as fragrance ingredients. Food Chem. Toxicol., 41: 919-942.

Boyer, C.S. and D.R. Petersen, 1991. The metabolism of 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octydienal (citral) in rat hepatic mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions: Interactions with aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenases. Drug Metab. Dispos., 19: 81-86.

Chadha, A. and M.K. Madyastha, 1984. Metabolism of geraniol and linalool in the rat and effects on liver and lung microsomal enzymes. Xenobiotica, 14: 365-374.

Crowell, P.L., S. Lin, E. Vedejs, and M.N. Gould, 1992. Identification of metabolites of the antitumor agent d-limonene capable of inhibiting protein isoprenylatio and cell growth. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol., 31: 205-212.

DeBarber, A.E., L. Bleyle, J.-B. Roullet, and D.R. Koop, 2004. w-Hydroxylation of farnesol by mammalian cytochromes P450. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1682: 18-27.

Diliberto, J.J., P. Srinivas, D. Overstreet, G. Usha, L.T. Burk, and L.S. Birnbaum, 1990. Metabolism of citral, an a,b-unsaturated aldehyde, in male F344 rats. Drug Metab. Dispos., 18: 886-875.

Engel, W., 2001. In vivo studies on the metabolism of the monoterpenes S-(+)- and R-(-)-carvon in humans using the metabolism of ingestion-correlated amounts (MICA) approach. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49: 4069-4075.

Engel, W., 2003. In vivo studies on the metabolism of the monoterpene pulegone in humans using the metabolism of ingestion-correlated amounts (MICA) approach: Explanation for the toxicity differences between (S)-(-)- and (R)-(+)-pulegon. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 6589-6597.

Eriksson, K. and J.O. Levin, 1996. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric identification of metabolites from a-pinene in human urine after occupational exposure to sawing fumes. J. Chromatogr. B, 677: 85-98.

Gelal, A., P. Jacob, L. Yu, and N.L. Benowitz, 1999. Disposition kinetics and effects of menthol. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 66: 128-235.

Gyoubu, K. and M. Miyazawa, 2007. In vitro metabolism of (-)-camphor using human liver microsomes and CYP2A6. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30: 230-233.

Hall, R.L. and B.L. Oser, 1965. Recent progress in the consideration of flavoring ingredients under the food-additives amendment III GRAS substances. Food Technol., 19: 253-271.

Höld, K.M., N.S. Sirisoma, T. Ikeda, T. Narahashi, and J.E. Casida, 2000. a-Thujone (the active component of absinthe): g-Aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification. Environ. Chem. Toxicol., 97: 3826-3831.

Höld, K.M., N.S. Sirisoma, and J.E. Casida, 2001. Detoxification of a-and ß-thujones (the active ingredients of absinthe): Site specificity and species differences in cytochrome P450 oxidation in vitro and in vivo. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 14: 589-595.

Ishida, T., 2005. Biotransformation of terpenoids by mammals, microorganisms, and plant-cultured cells. Chem. Biodivers., 2: 569-590.

Ishida, T., Y. Asakawa, T. Takemoto, and T. Aratani, 1979. Terpenoid biotransformation in mammals II: Biotransformation of dl-camphene in rabbits. J. Pharm. Sci., 68: 928-930.

Ishida, T., Y. Asakawa, T. Takemoto, and T. Aratani, 1981. Terpenoid biotransformation in mammals III: Biotransformation of a-pinene, ß-pinene, pinane, 3-carene, carane, myrcene, and p-cymene in rabbits. J. Pharm. Sci., 70: 406-415.

Ishida, T., M. Toyota, and Y. Asakawa, 1989. Terpenoid biotransformation in mammals. V. Metabolism of (+)-citronellal, (+/-)-7-hydroxycitronellal, citral, (-)-perillaldehyd, (-)-myrtenal, cuminaldehyde, thujone, and (+/-)-carvone in rabbits. Xenobiotica, 19: 843-855.

Jäger, W., M. Mayer, P. Platzer, G. Resnicek, H. Dietrich, and G. Buchbauer, 2000. Stereoselective metabolism of the monoterpene carvone by rat and human liver microsomes. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 52: 191-197.

Jäger, W., M. Mayer, G. Resnicek, and G. Buchbauer, 2001. Percutaneose absorbtion of the monoterpene carvone: Implication of stereoselective metabolism on blood. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 53: 637-642.

Jahrmann, R., 2007. Metabolismus von Monterpenen und Sesquiterpenen in Mensch und Säugetier: Bedeutung für die pharmazeutische Praxis. MPharm. diploma thesis, University of Vienna, Austria.

Leibmann, K.C. and E. Ortiz, 1972. Mammalian metabolism of terpenoids, I. Reduction and hydroxylation of camphor and related compounds. Drug Metab. Dispos., 1: 543-551.

Madyastha, K.M. and C.P. Raj, 1992. Metabolic fate of menthofuran in rats. Drug Metab. Dispos., 20: 295-301.

Madyastha, K.M. and V. Srivatsan, 1988a. Biotransformations of a-terpineol in the rat: Its effects on the liver microsomal cytochrome P450 system. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 41: 17-25.

Madyastha, K.M. and V. Srivatsan, 1988b. Studies on the metabolism of l-menthol in rats. Drug Metab. Dispos., 16: 765-772.

Mendes, A.C., M.M. Caldeira, C. Silva, S.C. Burgess, M.E. Merritt, F. Gomes, C. Barosa et al., 2006. Hepatic UDP-glucose 13C isotopomers from [U-13C] glucose: A sample analysis by 13C NMR of urinary menthol glucuronide. Magn. Reson. Med., 56: 1121-1125.

Miyazawa, M. and K. Gyoubu, 2006. Metabolism of (+)-fenchon by CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 29: 2354-2358.

Miyazawa, M., M. Shindo, and T. Shimada, 2001a. Roles of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in the 2-hydroxy-lation of 1,4-cineole, a monoterpene cyclic ether, by rat and human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica, 31: 713-723.

Miyazawa, M., M. Shindo, and T. Shimada, 2001b. Oxidation of 1,8-cineole, monoterpene cyclic ether originated from Eucalyptus polybractea, by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes. Drug Metab. Dispos., 29: 200-205.

Miyazawa, M., M. Shindo, and T. Shimada, 2002. Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-limonene to respective carveols and perillyl alcohols by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab. Dispos., 30: 602-607.

Mühlbauer, R.C., A. Lozano, S. Palacio, A. Reinli, and R. Felix, 2003. Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism. Bone, 32: 372-380.

Robertson, J.S. and M. Hussain, 1969. Metabolism of camphors and related compounds. Biochem. J., 113: 57-65.

Shimada, T., M. Shindo, and M. Miyazawa, 2002. Species differences in the metabolism of R-(-)- and S-(+)-limonenes and their metabolites, carveols and carvones, by cytochrome P450 enzymes in liver micro-somes of mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, monkeys, and humans. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinetics, 17: 507-515.

Spatzenegger, M. and W. Jäger, 1995. Clinical importance of hepatic cytochrome P450 in drug metabolism. Drug Metab. Rev., 27: 397-417.

Spichinger M., R.C. Muhlbauer, and R. Brenneisen, 2004. Determination of menthol in plasma and urine of rats and human by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B, 799: 111-117. Staines, A.G., P. Sindelpar, M.W.H. Coughtrie, and B. Burchell, 2004. Farnesol is glucuonidated in human liver, kidney and intestine in vitro, and is novel substrate for UGT2B7 and UGT1A1. Biochem. J., 384: 637-645.

Wichtel, M., 2002. Teedrogen und Phytopharmaka. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft. Yamaguchi, T., J. Caldwell, and P.B. Farmer, 1994. Metabolic fate of [3fl]-l-menthol in the rat. Drug Metab. Dispos., 22: 616-624.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Detoxification and Weight Loss

Detoxification and Weight Loss

Detoxification is something that is very important to the body, but it is something that isn't understood well. Centuries ago, health masters in the East understood the importance of balancing and detoxifying the body. It's something that Western medicine is only beginning to understand.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment