Results

The results of antimicrobial testing of the 28 essential oils listed in the European Pharmacopoeia 6th edition are shown in Tables 12.1 through 12.80. Although literature is not fully covered, the quantity of available information was in part unexpected.

Anise Oil, Anisi aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the dry ripe fruits of Pimpinella anisum L.

Bitter-Fennel Fruit Oil, Foeniculi amari fructus aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Miller, ssp. vulgare var. vulgare.

Content: fenchone: 12-25%, trans-anethole: 55-75%.

Caraway Oil, Carvi aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the dry fruits of Carum carvi L. Cassia Oil, Cinnamomi cassia aetheroleum

Definition: Cassia oil is obtained by steam distillation of the leaves and young branches of

Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees).

Ceylon Cinnamon Bark Oil, Cinnamomi zeylanicii corticis aetheroleum

Definition: Ceylon cinnamon bark oil is obtained by steam distillation of the bark of the shoots of

Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees (Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl.).

Ceylon Cinnamon Leaf Oil, Cinnamomi zeylanici folii aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the leaves of Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl.

ClTRONELLA OlL, ClTRONELLAE AETHEROLEUM

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh or partially dried aerial parts of

Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt.

Clary Sage Oil, Salviae sclaerae aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh or dried flowering stems of Salvia sclarea L.

Clove Oil, Caryophylli floris aetheroleum

Definition: Clove oil is obtained by steam distillation of the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merill et L. M. Perry (Eugenia caryophyllus C. Spreng. Bull. et Harr.).

Coriander Oil, Coriandri aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. Dwarf-Pine Oil, Pini pumilionis aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh needles, twigs, and branches of Pinus mugo ssp. mugo ZENARI and/or Pinus mugo ssp. pumilio (HAENKE) FRANCO. Pinus mugo Turra [Pinus mugo var. pumilio (Haenke) Zenari], plant part: leaves and twigs.

Eucalyptus Oil, Eucalypti aetheroleum

Definition: Eucalyptus oil is obtained by steam distillation and rectification of the fresh leaves or the fresh terminal branchlets of various species of Eucalyptus rich in 1,8-cineole. The species mainly used are Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker, and Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker.

Juniper Oil, Juniperi aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the ripe, nonfermented berry cones of Juniperus communis L.

Lavender Oil, Lavandulae aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the flowering tops of Lavandula angusti-folia Miller (Lavandula officinalis Chaix).

Lemon Oil, Limonis aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by suitable mechanical means, without the aid of heat, from the fresh peel of Citrus limon (L.) Burman fil.

Mandarin Oil, Citri reticulatae aetheroleum

Definition: Essential oil obtained without heating, by suitable mechanical treatment of the fresh peel of the fruit of Citrus reticulata Blanco var. mandarin.

Matricaria Oil, Matricariae aetheroleum

Definition: Blue essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh or dried flower heads or flowering tops of Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert). There are two types of matricaria oils, which are characterized as rich in bisabolol oxides or rich in (-)-a -bisabolol.

Mint Oil, Menthae arvensis aetheroleum partim menthol privum

Definition: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh, flowering aerial parts, recently gathered from Mentha canadensis L. [syn. Mentha arvensis L. var. glabrata (Benth) Fern., Mentha arvensis var. piperascens Malinv. ex Holmes], followed by partial separation of menthol by crystallization.

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