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12.4.1.1 Classification and examples of fallacies A fallacy is 'any mistaken idea or false belief, or error in reasoning or in argument' 4 . A fallacy is also generally defined as a flaw in reasoning anything that diverts the mind or eye or any reasoning, exposition, argument, etc. contravening the canons of logic 20 . Again, the application of general logic is necessary to purge medicine from numerous fallacies threatening reasoning and decisions, not so much to please formal logicians, but...

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Recently, Fowler et al 9 reported incidence and fatality rates of adult respiratory distress syndrome in patients suffering from various conditions or complications. For example, if the mortality rate due to adult respiratory distress syndrome in severely burned patients was 25 (or 0.25 as a decimal) and its incidence rate 50 or 0.5 (fictitious data), its case fatality rate must be 50 or 0.5, i.e. 25 150 or 0.25 0.5. Obviously, the higher the fatality rate, such as in the case of pulmonary...

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Figure 2.2 Induction and deduction in medical practice and research researcher compares disease occurrence according to the routinely noted marital status of subjects, and draws the conclusions that a particular cancer is related to being single. In both cases, data have been gathered first, without any previous hypothesis in mind, and subsequently analyzed to produce a final hypothesis (interpretation of data). As a second alternative, another sequence may be chosen A hypothesis is first...

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Figure 9.3 Principle of a sequential trial plan. Source Ref. 92, reproduced and adapted with permission from the International Biometric Society Figure 9.4 Sequential design of a clinical trial. Practical application. Source Ref. 94, reproduced with permission of the Massachusetts Medical Society (N Engl J Med) Figure 9.4 Sequential design of a clinical trial. Practical application. Source Ref. 94, reproduced with permission of the Massachusetts Medical Society (N Engl J Med) evaluated and the...

References

New Haven Yale University Press, 1987 2. Feinstein AR. An additional basic science for clinical medicine IV. The development of clinimetrics. Ann Intern Med, 1983 99 843-8 3. Last JM (ed.). A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 4th Edition. New York Oxford University Press, 2000 4. Jenicek M, Cleroux R. Epidemiologie clinique. Clinimetrie . (Clinical Epidemiology. Clinimetrics). St. Hyacinthe and Paris EDISEM and Maloine, 1985 5. Feinstein AR. Acquisition of clinical data....

Describing what happens Clinical case reports case series occurrence studies

A clinical problem is more likely to be an uncommon presentation of a common disease than a common presentation of an uncommon disease I keep six honest servingmen, (They taught me all I knew) Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who Principles of logic in medicine as outlined in Chapter 3 are not important solely for the theory of medicine. Often, we do not realize how much of our reasoning and decisionmaking depends on a solid logical discourse. Let us take an example...

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Descriptive studies describe in whom, when and where disease occurs. Analytical studies answer a fourth question why does disease occur Claude Bernard's basic experimental approach 4 was translated by Feinstein 5 into a pragmatic structure, illustrated by Figure 8.1. For example, the effects of vitamin-deficient diets are studied in laboratory animals. The experimental group is given an inadequate diet, and the control group receives an optimal diet. After a given period of...