Anthropological Analysis Of The Skull

Whatever the technique adopted, CFR demands a thorough anthropological analysis. After precise observation of the skull, the classical measurements horizontal, vertical, and sagittal must be made. Index and angles are calculated, giving the race (caucasoid, negroid, or mongoloid) and the general shape of the skull and face. For example, the glabella-pogonion (or nasion-pogonion) bizygomatic breadth index gives the more or less elongated or rounded contour of the face. Therefore, the cranial,...

Averaging

The averaging procedure had several steps, as illustrated in Figure 6.4. First the computer generated an average delineation map from the individual delineation maps by calculating the average x and y coordinate for every point along the contour lines. The computer then warped each individual's face into the average template using a multiscale algorithm (Tiddeman 1998). The average color (with red, green, and blue components) of each pixel was calculated to produce the initial average face...

Facial Image Database Sets

As model suspects, the 3D facial data of 132 Japanese male adult subjects were obtained using Fiore and stored in the host computer. In order to test identification performance of the improved software FaceList, the 2D facial images which showed various angles were made from the 3D facial image of subject No. 64 by 3D-Rugle3 for Face-To-Face. The right oblique 2D images were obtained at every 10 degrees (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 degrees) from the 3D facial image at the horizontal position (Figure...

Forensic Imperatives

The success of medico-legal investigations of death in the past decade result, in part, from methodological developments within many research domains of forensic science. However, the recent marked increase in the popularity of all things forensic is also peripherally responsible for an active media feeding the public's fixation on a mystery and society's innate morbid curiosity. A symbiotic relationship flourishes between the media, science, the medico-legal community, and the public that...

Manual 3d

A distinction is made between the anatomical (morphological, morphoscopic) method and the morphometric (sculptural) method. In the anatomical method, the muscles, salivary glands, and fat are positioned and then covered over by a layer of skin. The morphometric method sculpts the face following indications of the average thickness of certain salient anthropological points. Most researchers choose this method as it is probably easier and it has not been demonstrated scientifically that one...

Applications Of Computergraphic Facial Reconstruction

CHAPTER 16 INVESTIGATION OF ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN FACIAL MORPHOLOGY BY THREE-DIMENSIONAL AVERAGING Ashraf I. Shaweesh, C. David L. Thomas, and John G. Clement 17 ESTIMATION AND ANIMATION OF FACES USING FACIAL MOTION MAPPING AND A 3D FACE DATABASE Takaaki Kuratate, Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson, and Hani Camille Yehia FACIAL IMAGE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON 3D PHYSIOGNOMIC DATA 347 Mineo Yoshino 19 A NEW RETRIEVAL SYSTEM USING A 3D FACIAL IMAGE DATABASE Mineo Yoshino It is the common wonder of all...

References

H. (1993) Inversion and Configuration of Faces, Cog. Psychol. 25, 281-316. Bartlett J. C., Searcy J. H. and Abdi H. (2003) What are the routes to face recognition , in Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes Analytic and Holistic Processes (M. A. Peterson and G. Rhodes, eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford. Biederman I. and Kalocsai P. (1998) Neural and Psychophysical Analysis of Object and Face Recognition, in Face Recognition From Theory to Application (H....

Repairing The Damaged Skull

When skeletal remains are presented in a fragmented condition, this poses a challenge for the reconstructive sculptor. The skull may have been damaged by trauma, burning, or environmental or animal activity. The bones of the cranium and mandible may be fragmented in many places, and portions of either may be lost. The bones may also be in an extremely friable condition requiring great care if further damage is to be avoided. Such fragmented skulls can be rebuilt and held together with the aid...

Results And Future Work

The face of the Egyptian mummy generated using this technique is shown in Figure 10.7. As can be seen in the figure, there is a pronounced overbite on the upper lip. Initially, it was thought that this could be due to the lower mandible having sunk into the skull over the ages. However, this hypothesis was refuted by a forensic odontologist who confirmed that the position of the mandible was correct. This overbite on the upper lip particularly excited the Egyptologists, as the royal family of...

The Clay Modeling Procedure

Facial approximation in clay is an artistic endeavor and, as such, relies heavily on the individual skill of the sculptor. To be scientifically relevant, however, certain procedures need to be followed based on the established data. There are two approaches to this. The philosophy of the so-called Russian method, The contralateral undamaged side is used to assist in the repair process. developed by Gerasimov (1971), is to work close to the skull itself, noting the placement and definition of...

Threedimensional Quantification Of Facial Shape

School of Dental Science, University of Mebourne, Victoria 3010, Australia Anatomy is a subject that is going through a transition from being entirely descriptive to being a quantitative science based on measurement. The delay in transferring methods that are common in the physical sciences to biology is partly due to the innate complexity of biological systems and partly to the difficulties inherent in making sufficiently accurate measurements on the very complex objects created by biological...

Traditional Visual Radiograph Comparison Subjective

Forensic dentists have assisted medical examiners and coroners in unidentified-body cases for many years. In the United States, two cases are cited as the beginning of American forensic odontology the 1776 identification by the silversmith and dentist Paul Revere of Major General Joseph Warren after his death at Computer-Graphic Facial Reconstruction John G. Clement and Murray K. Marks, Editors Copyright 2005, Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved the Battle of Bunker (Breed's) Hill, and the...

What The Skull Can Tell Us Positional Relationships Between The Skull And The Facial Features

Facial features such as eyebrows, eyes, and eyelids, and to a lesser extent the ears, nose, and lips form the recognizable features of the face. As they are variable from individual to individual, only general information can be gleaned from a study of a population, particularly that of mixed ethnicity. The published literature has focused on single ethnic groups and some of the following generalizations need to be varied to account for differing populations. 3.4.1 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE...

Memory Research Has Two Different Goals

Since the early 1980s, an expanding line of research in errors and distortions of memory has emerged (for a critical review see Koriat, Goldsmith & Pansky, 2000), encompassing the following eleven research areas Gestalt approach to changes in memory over time, spatial memory and distortion, memory for gist versus detail, schema-based effects on memory accuracy, source monitoring, illusions stemming from fluency misattribution, false recall and recognition, misleading postevent information,...

Face As A Microsoft Excel Sheet

3D-Rugle3 provides a facility for the export of facial scans to a comma-separated-value (.csv) file that can be imported into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The inherent limitation of Excel for this purpose is that there are a maximum of 256 columns in a spreadsheet and thus exported images must be reduced in size by a scale factor of 0.5. After all images had been aligned they were saved as 256 X 256 arrays in Excel sheets, the number in each cell being the z value of the surface at the (x, y)...

Photography

Participants were photographed, in smiling and neutral expressions, in both frontal and right side profile, on a specially designed craniofacial photography rig that is similar to that described by Dobrostanski and Owen (1998). The rig is a permanent structure that enables frontal and profile photographs to be taken simultaneously (see for images Stephan 2003, Stephan et al. 2004). The rig uses two cameras that are fitted with 105 mm 1 2.8 Macro Nikor lenses, and the camera shutters are...

Standard Anthropologicallandmarks

Table of landmarks for the profile delineation map (Figure 6.3(b)). Left-side bilateral landmarks and landmarks falling midway between two other landmarks are not shown. Standard anthropological landmarks are shown in bold type. point at corneal junction with lower lid point at corneal junction with upper lid most lateral point of epicanthal fold most anterior point of epicanthal fold most anterior point on upper vermillion border labriale superius approximation (ls) point at junction of upper...

Appendix

Table of landmarks for the frontal delineation map (Figure 6.3(a)). Left-side bilateral landmarks and landmarks falling midway between two other landmarks are not shown. Standard anthropological landmarks are shown in bold type. midline point of inferior border of upper lip (in rest point 3 & 86 form the point at flexion of medial lower lid most medial point on epicanthal fold most superior point on epicanthal fold most lateral point on epicanthal fold most superior point on bridge of nose...

How Successful Is Facial Approximation

If the bones of the skull and the soft tissues of the face are interrelated, it stands to reason that the anatomy of the former will predict that of the latter, but is it predictable There have been many successes reported in the literature, and forensic sculptural approximation remains a popular if last-ditch attempt to identify unknown remains (Prag and Neave 1997b). Given all the problems associated with the reproduction of soft-tissue structures, it is perhaps not surprising that facial...