Averaging

The averaging procedure had several steps, as illustrated in Figure 6.4. First the computer generated an average delineation map from the individual delineation maps by calculating the average x and y coordinate for every point along the contour lines. The computer then warped each individual's face into the average template using a multiscale algorithm (Tiddeman 1998). The average color (with red, green, and blue components) of each pixel was calculated to produce the initial average face...

Collection And Processing Of Ct Database

A problem of basic forensic importance is to determine the identity of human skeletal remains. For this purpose, the skull often gives the best available information. One approach to the identification problem is to superimpose images of a person's face onto a given skull (Aulsebrook et al. 1995, Shahrom et al. 1996, Yoshino et al. 1997). This is essentially a method of verifying a hypothesized identification by determining the goodness of fit of a photographic image of a person with a...

Comparing Facial Images

Each 2D facial image obtained from the 3D facial image of subject No. 64 was compared to the adjusted 3D facial images of 132 subjects in each database set by FaceList. As shown in Figure 19.9, the 2D facial image of the target person is shown in the upper left corner of the retrieval result image. The 3D facial images of the database were ranked in batches of twenty and could be scrolled (Figure 19.9). The file name, rank, and status are shown in the lower left corner of the retrieval result...

Discussion

The laser surface scanner generates accurate 3D data. The availability of a lightweight user-friendly surface laser scanner in the field of orthodontics makes it possible to analyze growth, soft-tissue changes, treatment simulation, appliance designs, and treatment effects in three dimensions. Three-dimensional Sample of three-dimensional head model taken from multiple views to eliminate undercuts using special headband to ensure precise integration of the segments. Sample of three-dimensional...

Forensic Imperatives

The success of medico-legal investigations of death in the past decade result, in part, from methodological developments within many research domains of forensic science. However, the recent marked increase in the popularity of all things forensic is also peripherally responsible for an active media feeding the public's fixation on a mystery and society's innate morbid curiosity. A symbiotic relationship flourishes between the media, science, the medico-legal community, and the public that...

Materials And Method

The purpose of this study is to develop a noninvasive, economical, and reliable method for measuring human facial soft-tissue thickness using 3D finite-element modeling. Custom computer software (3DCeph 2000, Department of Orthodontics, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois) using a stereopho-togrammetry algorithm has been found to be accurate to 1.5 mm for linear measurements. From 38 hard-tissue main landmarks and 36 soft-tissue main landmarks, 97 hard-tissue vectors, and 159 soft-tissue...

Applications Of Computergraphic Facial Reconstruction

CHAPTER 16 INVESTIGATION OF ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN FACIAL MORPHOLOGY BY THREE-DIMENSIONAL AVERAGING Ashraf I. Shaweesh, C. David L. Thomas, and John G. Clement 17 ESTIMATION AND ANIMATION OF FACES USING FACIAL MOTION MAPPING AND A 3D FACE DATABASE Takaaki Kuratate, Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson, and Hani Camille Yehia FACIAL IMAGE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON 3D PHYSIOGNOMIC DATA 347 Mineo Yoshino 19 A NEW RETRIEVAL SYSTEM USING A 3D FACIAL IMAGE DATABASE Mineo Yoshino It is the common wonder of all...

References

H. (1993) Inversion and Configuration of Faces, Cog. Psychol. 25, 281-316. Bartlett J. C., Searcy J. H. and Abdi H. (2003) What are the routes to face recognition , in Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes Analytic and Holistic Processes (M. A. Peterson and G. Rhodes, eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford. Biederman I. and Kalocsai P. (1998) Neural and Psychophysical Analysis of Object and Face Recognition, in Face Recognition From Theory to Application (H....

Results And Future Work

The face of the Egyptian mummy generated using this technique is shown in Figure 10.7. As can be seen in the figure, there is a pronounced overbite on the upper lip. Initially, it was thought that this could be due to the lower mandible having sunk into the skull over the ages. However, this hypothesis was refuted by a forensic odontologist who confirmed that the position of the mandible was correct. This overbite on the upper lip particularly excited the Egyptologists, as the royal family of...

Threedimensional Quantification Of Facial Shape

School of Dental Science, University of Mebourne, Victoria 3010, Australia Anatomy is a subject that is going through a transition from being entirely descriptive to being a quantitative science based on measurement. The delay in transferring methods that are common in the physical sciences to biology is partly due to the innate complexity of biological systems and partly to the difficulties inherent in making sufficiently accurate measurements on the very complex objects created by biological...

Memory Research Has Two Different Goals

Since the early 1980s, an expanding line of research in errors and distortions of memory has emerged (for a critical review see Koriat, Goldsmith & Pansky, 2000), encompassing the following eleven research areas Gestalt approach to changes in memory over time, spatial memory and distortion, memory for gist versus detail, schema-based effects on memory accuracy, source monitoring, illusions stemming from fluency misattribution, false recall and recognition, misleading postevent information,...

Face As A Microsoft Excel Sheet

3D-Rugle3 provides a facility for the export of facial scans to a comma-separated-value (.csv) file that can be imported into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The inherent limitation of Excel for this purpose is that there are a maximum of 256 columns in a spreadsheet and thus exported images must be reduced in size by a scale factor of 0.5. After all images had been aligned they were saved as 256 X 256 arrays in Excel sheets, the number in each cell being the z value of the surface at the (x, y)...

Photography

Participants were photographed, in smiling and neutral expressions, in both frontal and right side profile, on a specially designed craniofacial photography rig that is similar to that described by Dobrostanski and Owen (1998). The rig is a permanent structure that enables frontal and profile photographs to be taken simultaneously (see for images Stephan 2003, Stephan et al. 2004). The rig uses two cameras that are fitted with 105 mm 1 2.8 Macro Nikor lenses, and the camera shutters are...

Appendix

Table of landmarks for the profile delineation map (Figure 6.3(b)). Left-side bilateral landmarks and landmarks falling midway between two other landmarks are not shown. Standard anthropological landmarks are shown in bold type. point at corneal junction with lower lid point at corneal junction with upper lid most lateral point of epicanthal fold most anterior point of epicanthal fold most anterior point on upper vermillion border labriale superius approximation (ls) point at junction of upper...

How Successful Is Facial Approximation

If the bones of the skull and the soft tissues of the face are interrelated, it stands to reason that the anatomy of the former will predict that of the latter, but is it predictable There have been many successes reported in the literature, and forensic sculptural approximation remains a popular if last-ditch attempt to identify unknown remains (Prag and Neave 1997b). Given all the problems associated with the reproduction of soft-tissue structures, it is perhaps not surprising that facial...