Averaging

The averaging procedure had several steps, as illustrated in Figure 6.4. First the computer generated an average delineation map from the individual delineation maps by calculating the average x and y coordinate for every point along the contour lines. The computer then warped each individual's face into the average template using a multiscale algorithm (Tiddeman 1998). The average color (with red, green, and blue components) of each pixel was calculated to produce the initial average face...

Applications Of Computergraphic Facial Reconstruction

CHAPTER 16 INVESTIGATION OF ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN FACIAL MORPHOLOGY BY THREE-DIMENSIONAL AVERAGING Ashraf I. Shaweesh, C. David L. Thomas, and John G. Clement 17 ESTIMATION AND ANIMATION OF FACES USING FACIAL MOTION MAPPING AND A 3D FACE DATABASE Takaaki Kuratate, Eric Vatikiotis-Bateson, and Hani Camille Yehia FACIAL IMAGE IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM BASED ON 3D PHYSIOGNOMIC DATA 347 Mineo Yoshino 19 A NEW RETRIEVAL SYSTEM USING A 3D FACIAL IMAGE DATABASE Mineo Yoshino It is the common wonder of all...

References

H. (1993) Inversion and Configuration of Faces, Cog. Psychol. 25, 281-316. Bartlett J. C., Searcy J. H. and Abdi H. (2003) What are the routes to face recognition , in Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes Analytic and Holistic Processes (M. A. Peterson and G. Rhodes, eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford. Biederman I. and Kalocsai P. (1998) Neural and Psychophysical Analysis of Object and Face Recognition, in Face Recognition From Theory to Application (H....

Traditional Visual Radiograph Comparison Subjective

Forensic dentists have assisted medical examiners and coroners in unidentified-body cases for many years. In the United States, two cases are cited as the beginning of American forensic odontology the 1776 identification by the silversmith and dentist Paul Revere of Major General Joseph Warren after his death at Computer-Graphic Facial Reconstruction John G. Clement and Murray K. Marks, Editors Copyright 2005, Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved the Battle of Bunker (Breed's) Hill, and the...

Memory Research Has Two Different Goals

Since the early 1980s, an expanding line of research in errors and distortions of memory has emerged (for a critical review see Koriat, Goldsmith & Pansky, 2000), encompassing the following eleven research areas Gestalt approach to changes in memory over time, spatial memory and distortion, memory for gist versus detail, schema-based effects on memory accuracy, source monitoring, illusions stemming from fluency misattribution, false recall and recognition, misleading postevent information,...

Face As A Microsoft Excel Sheet

3D-Rugle3 provides a facility for the export of facial scans to a comma-separated-value (.csv) file that can be imported into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The inherent limitation of Excel for this purpose is that there are a maximum of 256 columns in a spreadsheet and thus exported images must be reduced in size by a scale factor of 0.5. After all images had been aligned they were saved as 256 X 256 arrays in Excel sheets, the number in each cell being the z value of the surface at the (x, y)...

Photography

Participants were photographed, in smiling and neutral expressions, in both frontal and right side profile, on a specially designed craniofacial photography rig that is similar to that described by Dobrostanski and Owen (1998). The rig is a permanent structure that enables frontal and profile photographs to be taken simultaneously (see for images Stephan 2003, Stephan et al. 2004). The rig uses two cameras that are fitted with 105 mm 1 2.8 Macro Nikor lenses, and the camera shutters are...

Appendix

Table of landmarks for the profile delineation map (Figure 6.3(b)). Left-side bilateral landmarks and landmarks falling midway between two other landmarks are not shown. Standard anthropological landmarks are shown in bold type. point at corneal junction with lower lid point at corneal junction with upper lid most lateral point of epicanthal fold most anterior point of epicanthal fold most anterior point on upper vermillion border labriale superius approximation (ls) point at junction of upper...

How Successful Is Facial Approximation

If the bones of the skull and the soft tissues of the face are interrelated, it stands to reason that the anatomy of the former will predict that of the latter, but is it predictable There have been many successes reported in the literature, and forensic sculptural approximation remains a popular if last-ditch attempt to identify unknown remains (Prag and Neave 1997b). Given all the problems associated with the reproduction of soft-tissue structures, it is perhaps not surprising that facial...