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Possible causes A serious eye disorder such as glaucoma, in which excess fluid causes increased pressure in the eye, or iritis, inflammation of the coloured part of the eye, are possible causes of your symptoms. action Your doctor may send you to hospital for urgent assessment. If you have glaucoma, you will need drugs to reduce the pressure in the eye. Iritis needs immediate treatment with corticosteroid eye drops or tablets. possible cause Diabetic retinopathy, in which the tiny fragile blood...

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Possible causes Local soreness or severe constipation are possible causes. In some cases, a urinary infection (opposite) may be causing pain on passing urine, and your child may be reluctant to try to pass urine again. A child who feels a strong urge to pass urine but is unable to do so needs urgent medical help. action Your doctor will examine your child to try to establish the cause of the problem. He or she may suggest painkillers and suggest you encourage your child to pass urine while he...

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Possible causes Gout, in which the waste product uric acid forms crystals in a joint, causing inflammation, is the most likely cause of your symptoms. An infection within the joint is also a possibility. action Your doctor will examine you, and may arrange for a blood test and for a sample of fluid to be taken from the joint and examined. If you have gout, you will be prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. If the symptoms recur, you may need long-term drug treatment to reduce the...

Position Of Instruments

Endoscopy can be used for surgical treatments, often referred to as minimally invasive surgery. These treatments may even occur at the same time as the endoscopy is being used to make a diagnosis. The surgery is performed by using instruments passed down the endoscope. Endoscopic treatments include removal of intestinal polyps or diseased tissue (such as an inflamed gallbladder) and laser surgery to treat endometriosis. The doctor uses the endoscopic view as a guide during the procedure. Such...

Gas Exchange In Body Cells

Waste carbon dioxide leaves the body cells ami dissolves in the plasma The nervous system gathers, analyses, stores, and transmits information. It controls vital body functions and interacts with the outside world. There are two parts the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which is made up of nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord to all areas of the body. Signals, in the form of tiny electrical impulses, are...

Professional healthcare

Looking after your health involves not only following a healthy lifestyle but also making effective use of the healthcare system. Doctors and other professional healthcare workers provide treatment when you are ill and are also involved in some important elements of preventive healthcare. These include health education, checkups during childhood and later in life, screening tests to identify risk factors and early signs of disease, and immunizations to help prevent certain infectious diseases....

Female

This graph shows that male and female smokers are, respectively, over 20 and 10 times more likely to develop lung cancer than those who have never smoked. Ex-smokers have a much lower risk than current smokers 15 years after giving up, they will have reduced their lung cancer risk by more than half. Mouth and tongue cancers may be caused by irritants in smoke The risk of cardiovascular disease is increased by smoking You can help to prevent heart or lung disease by not smoking or by giving up...

Useful addresses

Throughout the UK, hundreds of organizations, from government agencies such as the Department of Health to nonprofit organizations such as the Red Cross, are dedicated to helping people deal with most conditions. This list is a limited sample of such organizations, but further information is available from local libraries, hospitals, and GP or health clinics. Most organizations provide information about resources for specific medical or emotional conditions, and many have support groups or can...

Xbv

Possible cause An area of breast tissue that is not emptying properly may be causing the lump. action Offer the affected breast first at each feed, and let the baby empty the breast. Try varying the feeding position. If these measures do not help, consult your doctor. Childbirth is followed by a dramatic alteration in the body's hormones as you begin to adjust to no longer being pregnant. Your emotions are also likely to be in turmoil -a new baby brings huge changes to your lifestyle, and you...

Warning

Do not leave the victim alone, except to call an ambulance. If possible, ask a helper to summon medical help. Do not let the victim eat or drink unless he or she has diabetes and is hypoglycaemic. Do not leave the victim alone, except to call an ambulance. If possible, ask a helper to summon medical help. Do not let the victim eat or drink unless he or she has diabetes and is hypoglycaemic. Ilf you have a helper, send him or her to call an ambulance. Treat any obvious cause of shock, such as...

Cross Section Of The Brain

The central nervous system, comprising the brain and spinal cord, processes and coordinates nerve signals. The spinal cord forms the link between the brain and the rest of the body. Motor pathways, which carry messages from the brain, descend through the spinal cord, while sensory pathways from the skin and other sensory organs ascend through the spinal cord carrying messages to the brain. A network of peripheral nerves reaches all parts of the body. Each nerve is formed from hundreds of nerve...