2 injections (vaccine)

Mediterranean or developing countries (frequent visits)

Hepatitis B

3 injections over 6 months

Areas where hepatitis B is endemic; necessary if you may need to receive medical or dental treatment in a developing country

Japanese B encephalitis

2-3 injections 1-2 weeks apart

Rural areas of the Indian subcontinent, China, Southeast Asia, and the Far East

Meningitis A and C

1 injection

Saudi Arabia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Nepal, Brazil; immunization certificate needed if travelling to Mecca


3 injections over 4 weeks

Areas where rabies is endemic; necessary if you will be working with animals or travelling in remote areas


1 or 2 injections or 3 oral doses

Areas with poor sanitation

Yellow fever

1 injection

Parts of Africa and South America

Immunizations for special cases

In some circumstances, specific groups of people may need to be given immunizations that are not normally offered to most people. These immunizations are usually offered because these groups are at increased risk of developing a serious illness if they become infected. For example, immunizations against influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia are commonly given to people over the age of 65; to those who have reduced immunity, such as people with diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, or AIDS; and to those with long-term heart or lung disease. In addition, some people may need immunization if their type of work puts them at increased risk of an infectious disease. For example, people who work with animals may need to be vaccinated against the virus that causes rabies.

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