Possible cause Inverted nipples, which do not protrude from the breast, may make it difficult to breast-feed. Consult your doctor or midwife.

Action Your doctor or midwife will examine your breasts. You may be advised to wear a nipple shell inside your bra during pregnancy to draw the nipple out.

Possible causes Generalized lumpiness of the breasts is common during pregnancy. However, a single breast lump should always be investigated because of the slight risk of breast cancer. Consult your doctor.

Action Your doctor will examine your breasts and may refer you for ultrasound scanning (p.41). Most breast lumps are harmless and do not need treatment.

Possible cause Breast engorgement, in which the breasts become overfull and painful, occurs when more milk than necessary is produced. This is common when milk first comes in or if breast-feeding is stopped abruptly.

Action Wear a firm, supportive bra and take painkillers if necessary. Your milk supply will adapt to your baby's demands within a week or so. If you have stopped breast-feeding, your milk will dry up within 2-3 weeks. Avoid expressing milk as this stimulates production.

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