Chlamydia trachomatis

Donovan Bodies

The majority of women with Chlamydia infection are without symptoms. Many men are asymptomatic as well. Regular screening for Chlamydia, as recommended by the USPSTF, can significantly reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), one of the most serious sequelae of untreated infection. In women with untreated Chlamydia infection, in addition to PID, tubo-ovarian abscess, tubal scarring and ectopic pregnancy, and infertility can all result. As previously mentioned, regular...

Congenital Neck Masses

Hyoid Cancer

Congenital neck masses are common in children but can occur in any age group. These are the most common cause of noninflammatory neck masses in the pediatric population. Classifying these into midline or lateral location helps in the workup because congenital neck masses occur in consistent anatomic sites (see eBox 19-10 online). Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common anterior midline neck masses in children. They are remnants of the descending tract of the thyroid gland from the foramen...

Disorders of Neutrophils Neutrophilia

Neutrophilia is defined as a WBC count higher than 10,000 cells L plus an absolute neutrophil count more than 2 SD above the mean, or higher than 7000 cells L. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC) can be calculated by multiplying the total WBC count by the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) leukocytes and bands (PMNs + bands) Table 39-4 Normal White Blood Cell (WBC) Counts in Peripheral Blood Table 39-4 Normal White Blood Cell (WBC) Counts in Peripheral Blood in the WBC...

What Is Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Complementary Alternative Medicine

Various definitions have been used to describe the array of approaches and philosophies commonly referred to as CAM. As the field has evolved, so has the terminology. Unconventional, unproven, alternative, complementary, holistic, integrative, and integral are some of the most common examples of terms in current use. Historically, medical pluralism has long existed in the United States (Kaptchuk and Eisenberg, 2001a). Over the past few decades, alternative medicine has become a more recognized...

Nummular Dermatitis Nummular Eczema

Nummular Eczema

Nummular dermatitis consists of well-demarcated, coin-shaped lesions of eczema, typically on the extremities and less often the trunk (Fig. 33-33). Nummular dermatitis tends to worsen in dry, cold weather. Lesions may be mildly to severely pruritic and as a result become excoriated or even lichenified with scratching. Nummular dermatitis can be confused with plaques of psoriasis or tinea corporis but skin scrapings will not reveal hyphae on KOH preparation. Also, lesions lack the typical...

Generalized Exfoliative Dermatitis

Exfoliative Dermatitis

Exfoliative dermatitis, also known as erythroderma, is an uncommon but serious skin disorder defined as erythema and scale covering over 90 of the body surface area (Fig. 33-34). The four most common causes of erythroderma are psoriasis, AD, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and drug reactions. More than 60 drugs have been implicated in cases of exfoliative dermatitis more often allopurinol, beta-lactam antibiotics, antiseizure medications, and sulfa drugs. More than half of patients will have...

Stomach and Duodenum Dyspepsia

Chf Treatment Algorithm

Dyspepsia (bad digestion) accounts for approximately 5 of all visits to family practitioners and is the most common reason for referral to a gastroenterologist in the United States, accounting for 20 to 40 of consultations (Jones and Lacy, 2004). The term dyspepsia refers to episodic or recurrent pain or discomfort arising from the proximal GI tract related to meals and is associated with heartburn, reflux, regurgitation, indigestion, bloating, early satiety, and weight loss. The lack of a...