The infant abdomen is normally round, soft, and symmetric. Abdominal masses, hepatomegaly, duodenal atresia, and other intra-abdominal abnormalities can cause asymmetry. Bowel sounds should be heard in all quadrants. The umbilical cord should be clamped and should be dry, showing no signs of infection. The abdomen should be palpated when the infant is not crying or upset, and the liver, kidneys, and spleen should be normal in size. The normal infant liver is 1 to 3.5 cm below the costal margin, and the left lobe often crosses the midline. The normal spleen should be slightly below the left lateral costal margin and should feel firm and small. The kidneys are felt with deep palpation as small, firm, lobular masses on either side of the abdomen.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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