Organic lesions


Craniopharyngiomas Pituitary adenomas (e.g., prolactinoma, nonfunctioning tumor) Meningioma Pituitary apoplexy Infiltrative disorders

Sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis Histiocytosis X Head trauma

Leydig cell tumors, choriocarcinoma CNS radiation therapy

Systemic disorders affecting HPT axis

Critical illness, including burns Extreme exercise Malnutrition (anorexia nervosa) Morbid obesity Anabolic steroid abuse

Glucocorticoid excess (endogenous: Cushing's syndrome; exogenous) Narcotics

From Allan CA, McLachlan RI. Androgen deficiency disorders. In DeGroot LJ, Jameson, JL (eds). Endocrinology, 5th ed, vol 3. Philadelphia, Elsevier-Saunders, 2006. CNS, Central nervous system; GnRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone: HPT, hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular.

the diagnosis of Kallmann syndrome in those with isolated gonadotropin deficiency. Treatment is aimed at virilization by the administration of testosterone.

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