Age Related Changes in Urinary System

Specific age-related changes in the urinary system can directly influence urinary continence. The pelvic floor muscles can lose tone and predispose women to uterine, bladder, and rectal prolapse, causing secondary urge incontinence. Overall

Table 4-15 Medications Associated with Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Patients

Diuretics: polyuria, frequency, urgency

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: cough precipitating stress incontinence

Anticholinergics: urinary retention, overflow incontinence, stool impaction

Psychotropics: anticholinergic actions, sedation, immobility, delirium Narcotic analgesics: urinary retention, fecal impaction, sedation, delirium Alpha-adrenergic agonists: contraction of smooth muscle of urethra and prostatic capsule

Alpha-adrenergic blockers: urethral relaxation

Alcohol: polyuria, frequency, urgency, sedation, delirium, immobility

Caffeine: polyuria, bladder irritation bladder capacity also tends to decrease, limiting total volume and therefore increasing urge to urinate. Prostatic hypertrophy predisposes older men to increases in postvoid residual volumes. Older incontinent persons may also experience increased involuntary bladder contractions, exacerbating the problem.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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