Anatomic Disorders

• Prenatally identified hydronephrosis may be caused by underlying urinary tract obstruction. These infants need close follow-up with ultrasound in the first week of life.

• Hydroceles in infants often resolve by age 2 years. Hydroceles in adults may have a secondary cause.

• Reassure patients with Peyronie's disease that it is usually self-limited.

Figure 40-8 Approach to the child with proteinuria. ANA, Antinuclear antibody; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; U/A, urinalysis; UPr:UCr, urine protein/ urine creatinine.

• Testicular torsion is a medical emergency. Torsion of the appendix testis is less severe and can be managed with supportive care.

• Undescended testes increase the risk for testicular cancer in the undescended as well as contralateral testicle.

Anatomic urinary tract disorders involve various congenital and acquired abnormalities, most notably of the external genitalia. Testicular disorders are seen more often than abnormalities of the penis, particularly undescended testes. Anatomic derangements of the bladder, ureter, and kidney are often only discovered incidentally or during an evaluation

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