Episodes of apnea persisting for longer than 20 seconds are abnormal and should be promptly investigated. There might or might not be associated bradycardia and cyanosis. Apnea can have several causes, including medications administered to the mother during labor, sepsis, airway obstruction, severe hypoxemia, central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities, and metabolic disorders.

It is important to distinguish apnea from periodic breathing (Hoekelman, 2001). Periodic breathing is almost always a normal finding in the newborn, particularly in the preterm infant.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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