Common Urinary Tract Concerns Key Points

• Dysuria most often indicates UTI, vaginitis, or STI.

• Gross hematuria requires aggressive evaluation.

• Urine microscopy is required to diagnose hematuria. In adults, risk factors for malignancy should be assessed; isolated hematuria is most common in children.

• Hematuria of renal origin often has dysmorphic red cells. Hematuria of bladder origin should show normal red cells.

• Nocturia is common in both genders and increases the risk of falling in older adults.

• The urine protein/creatinine (Upr/UCr) ratio correlates well with a 24-hour urine and is much easier to obtain.

• Proteinuria in children is most often orthostatic.

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