See online text for discussion.

Table 35-5 Common Diagnoses in Men Evaluated for Infertility

Diagnostic Category

Incidence (%)

Idiopathic infertility


Primary testicular failure (chromosomal disorders including Klinefelter's syndrome, Y-chromosome microdeletions, undescended testis, irradiation, orchitis, drugs)


Genital tract obstruction (congenital absence of vas, vasectomy, epididymal obstruction)


Coital disorders


Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (pituitary adenomas, panhypopituitarism, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia)




Other (sperm autoimmunity, drugs, toxins, systemic illness)


From Griffin JE, Wilson JD. Disorders of the testes and the male reproductive tract. In Larsen PR et al (eds). Williams' Textbook of Endocrinology, 10th ed. Philadelphia, Elsevier-Saunders, 2003.

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