Anemia is best defined as a reduced RBC mass resulting in decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Table 39-1 lists normal values for hemoglobin and hematocrit (Hct); values below the lower limits of normal for age and gender indicate only 25% likelihood that the person is not anemic. Previous Hb and Hct values for a given patient are useful comparisons when interpreting currently determined levels. Both pregnant women and long-distance athletes may have increases in plasma volume so that the Hct or the Hb value, or both, fall artificially below normal ranges. They still have a normal oxygen-carrying capacity with a normal RBC mass and should not be considered anemic. Conversely, a dehydrated patient admitted to the hospital may have Hb or Hct that appears normal because of plasma volume contraction. Correction of their volume-depleted state will allow appropriate determination of their true RBC oxygen-carrying capacity. When Hct or Hb is abnormal, further investigation is indicated, whether or not the subject appears clinically well.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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