Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized ovum implants on any tissue other than the endometrial lining of the uterus. Overall, 95% of all ectopic pregnancies are tubal, 1.5% abdominal, 0.5% ovarian, and 0.03% cervical (Breen, 1970). A heterotopic pregnancy is a coexisting intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancy. Historically, there is an increasing incidence reported in the literature to a current rate of about 1 in 4000 pregnancies. This increased rate is thought to be associated with the use of ovarian stimulation and with assisted reproductive technologies. Ectopic pregnancies are responsible for more than 10% of all maternal deaths in the United States (Koonin et al., 1997).

The rate of ectopic pregnancy in women with known history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is 6 to 10 times higher than in women with no prior history. PID usually results from invasion by either gonorrhea or chlamydia from the cervix into the uterus and tubes. The infection in these tissues causes an intense inflammatory reaction. Bacteria, white blood cells, and other fluids fill the tubes as the body combats the infection. During the healing process, however, the delicate tubal mucosa is permanently scarred. The fim-briated end of the fallopian tube as well as the lumen may become partially or completely blocked with scar tissue. If PID is treated very early and aggressively with intravenous (IV) antibiotics, the tubal damage might be minimized and fertility preserved. Other conditions associated with ectopic pregnancies include progestin-bearing intrauterine devices (IUDs), previous tubal surgery, and tubal ligation.

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How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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