Epidemiology and Presentation

Outside the United States, the most common cause of pleural disease is tuberculosis. In the United States, TB is still significant, but other disorders, such as pneumonia, HIV-related infections, connective tissue disease (especially lupus), and malignancies (mesothelioma, peripheral lung cancer) must also be considered. Pleural effusions can be caused by systemic sources of transudate (CHF, hepatic failure with ascites, autoimmune disease) or by local inflammatory processes (parapneumonic effusion, pancreatitis, neoplasia).

Four major categories of pathology arise from the pleura or pleural space: pleural fluid (transudate, exudate, hemorrhage, or chylous effusion), pneumothorax, pleural scarring, and pleural mass.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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