Epidemiology and Risk Factors

Table 18-4 shows the relationship between opportunistic infections (OIs) and specific levels of immunocompromise as measured by CD4+ lymphocyte counts; 200 cells^L is a critical threshold for prophylactic treatment (Clumeck and Wit, 2003). More than half of HIV patients with CD4+ counts below this level experience an AIDS-related OI in 2 years.

Human cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) are now understood to be caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci. Most healthy children have been infected asymptomatically with P jiroveci by age 4 years (Pifer et al., 1978), allowing cases in HIV patients to occur either by reactivation or by new exposure. Without antiretroviral therapy or PCP prophylaxis, more than 70% of HIV-infected patients could be expected to experience PCP, with 20% to 40% mortality (Phair et al., 1990).

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment