Evaluation of the Urinary Tract

The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra; a system history most often focuses on voiding, its primary function. Other issues may include sexual function or areas of overlap with other systems (e.g., abdominal pain). Patients often present with, or are found to have, common concerns specific to the urinary tract (see later discussion). A thorough drug history is critical because many common medications have uro-logic side effects (Thomas et al., 2003) (see eTable 40-1 online).

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