Eye Trauma

Ocular injury is common in sports and largely preventable if athletes wear appropriate eye protection. The highest risk sports are those in which intentional injury can occur (e.g., boxing and combative martial arts) and those in which hard projectiles, sticks, or fingers are likely to encounter the eye. High-risk sports include basketball, baseball, softball, cricket, lacrosse, squash, racquetball, fencing, and all varieties of hockey. Squash and racquetball are particularly concerning because of the high likelihood of severe injury. Athletes with preexisting monocular visual impairment must understand the importance of protecting the good eye, and preparticipation visual acuity assessment of binocular and monocular vision is essential. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is the primary U.S. organization for certifying eyewear for sports, and experts have provided recommendations for eye protection for different sports (Vinger, 2000).

Common sports-related eye injuries include presence of a foreign body and corneal abrasion. More significant impact results in possible iris injury, posttraumatic iritis, hyphema, or globe perforation or rupture. Athletes presenting with eye pain should be removed from participation and have a thorough eye examination, as follows:

1. Assessment and documentation of visual acuity

2. Inspection for evidence of globe rupture or leaking aqueous humor

3. Assessment of extraocular movements, limitation, or asymmetry suggesting orbital fracture

4. Assessment of pupil reactivity (A dilated, constricted, or sluggish pupil can be transient secondary to iris trauma or may indicate hyphema or globe injury.)

5. Inspection of anterior chamber for blood indicating hyphema

Abnormalities identified on this initial examination require consultation with an ophthalmologist. If the examination is normal, lid inversion should be performed, inspecting for a foreign body, with slit-lamp evaluation using fluorescein staining to assess for corneal abrasions. Anesthetic eyedrops may be required to facilitate the examination and for initial pain management but should not be used to allow return to play or for ongoing pain management (Moeller and Rifat, 2003).

Corneal abrasions are treated with antibiotic eyedrops to prevent infection and topical NSAIDs given for pain, if necessary (Weaver and Terrell, 2003). Once pain-free, with a normal follow-up examination, athletes might return to play. After ocular injury, an athlete is often more receptive to counseling on protective eyewear.

Baseball For Boys

Baseball For Boys

Since World War II, there has been a tremendous change in the makeup and direction of kid baseball, as it is called. Adults, showing an unprecedented interest in the activity, have initiated and developed programs in thousands of towns across the United States programs that providebr wholesome recreation for millions of youngsters and are often a source of pride and joy to the community in which they exist.

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