Key Points

• Bradyarrhythmias caused by increased resting vagal tone are common in athletes and include sinus bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, first-degree atrioventricular block, and Wenckebach (Mobitz I) second-degree AV block.

• Mobitz II second-degree and complete third-degree AV blocks are always pathologic and warrant cardiologic evaluation.

• Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in the athlete are abnormal and require further evaluation and treatment, often with radiofrequency ablation, before participation in strenuous exercise.

• Ventricular arrhythmias are life-threatening events and usually occur in the presence of structural heart disease or ion channel disorders.

• Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery anomalies, and commotio cordis are the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in young U.S. athletes.

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

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Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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