Key Points

• Patients with proteinuria and elevated Upr/UCr should be evaluated for chronic kidney disease. The serum creatinine level may not correlate with glomerular filtration rate; GFR estimates are adequate to diagnose kidney disease; 24-hour urine testing is usually not needed.

• Patients with chronic kidney disease need systemic management.

• Enuresis typically resolves with age. A bed-wetting alarm is effective if treatment is needed.

• Erectile dysfunction has many causes and may be a marker of vascular disease.

• Pelvic floor muscle exercises are first-line treatment for stress and mixed urinary incontinence.

• Anticholinergic drugs and trospium are effective treatments for urge incontinence.

• Anticholinergic drugs for an overactive bladder may not have clinically significant benefits and often cause dry mouth.

• Men with recurrent kidney stones and idiopathic hypercalciuria should be on a low-sodium, low-protein diet. Low-calcium diets do not reduce stone formation.

• Non-contrast-enhanced CT is the test of choice for diagnosing kidney stones.

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