Key Points

for UTIs, voiding problems, CKD, or pain possibly related to the urinary tract. For example, posterior urethral valves cause vesicoureteral reflux and may contribute to recurrent UTIs (see Urinary Tract Infections in Children).

Scrotal masses are frequently encountered in family medicine. Anatomic causes of scrotal masses are not limited to the urinary tract, and neoplastic and infectious causes are also in the differential diagnosis (Table 40-4). Scrotal or testicular pain, the so-called acute scrotum, implies a more urgent or emergent cause (e.g., testicular torsion). Because the history and physical examination may not be adequate to differentiate certain conditions (e.g., epididymo-orchitis from testicular torsion), adjunctive imaging such as ultrasound is often used.

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