Key Points

• The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis requires evidence of demyelinating disseminated disease.

• Optic neuritis, nystagmus from internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and Lhermitte's sign are highly suggestive of MS.

• The currently most widely accepted diagnostic criteria for MS are the McDonald criteria, established by an international panel in 2001 and revised in 2005.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a recurrent, chronic, demyelinating, autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system. The mean age of onset for MS is 29 to 33 years, although the range is 15 to 50 years, which makes this the most common cause of neurologic disability in young adults.

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