Key Points

• Specific opportunistic infections are associated with HIV, and bacterial community-acquired pneumonias are also common.

• More than half of HIV-infected patients with CD4+ counts less than 200 cells/^L experience an AIDS-related opportunistic infection within the next 2 years.

• Tuberculosis is common in HIV patients. TB worsens the clinical course of HIV infection, and HIV infection complicates TB management.

• High-resolution CT scan is the best imaging study for diagnosing HIV-related pulmonary infections.

• Inactivated influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for HIV-infected patients who are still able to mount a significant immune response.

HIV/AIDS by definition compromises our host defense capacity for fighting otherwise-benign infections. Some of the most common opportunistic infections in patients with HIV/AIDS affect the lungs as their target organ.

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