Other Diagnostic Tests

Postvoid Residual Measurement

Postvoid residual measurement assesses the volume of urine in the bladder after voiding and can be performed in the office. One method is to have the patient void and then measure any residual urine by catheterization. Less than 50 mL of residual urine is normal, and 200 mL or greater is abnormal (Nitti and Blaivas, 2007). Portable ultrasound units can also estimate postvoid residual urine. Urodynamics refers to a battery of tests examining micturition, which may include post-void residual measurement as well as various tests of bladder and sphincter pressures.


Urinary endoscopy (cystoscopy) provides visual diagnosis and the opportunity for intervention. Rigid or flexible endoscopic procedures are available. Common interventional techniques include stone retrieval, stent placement, tumor biopsy and resection, and laser treatment. Risks include infection, bleeding, urethral damage, and bladder perforation.

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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