Other Diagnostic Tests

Postvoid Residual Measurement

Postvoid residual measurement assesses the volume of urine in the bladder after voiding and can be performed in the office. One method is to have the patient void and then measure any residual urine by catheterization. Less than 50 mL of residual urine is normal, and 200 mL or greater is abnormal (Nitti and Blaivas, 2007). Portable ultrasound units can also estimate postvoid residual urine. Urodynamics refers to a battery of tests examining micturition, which may include post-void residual measurement as well as various tests of bladder and sphincter pressures.

Endoscopy

Urinary endoscopy (cystoscopy) provides visual diagnosis and the opportunity for intervention. Rigid or flexible endoscopic procedures are available. Common interventional techniques include stone retrieval, stent placement, tumor biopsy and resection, and laser treatment. Risks include infection, bleeding, urethral damage, and bladder perforation.

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