Pediatric Ophthalmology

Key Points

• Children should be screened at birth, birth to 3 months,

3 to 6 months, 6 to 12 months, 3 years, 5 years, and then every 1 to 2 years.

• Amblyopia and strabismus are distinct but may be associated. Children can have amblyopia without having strabismus.

All children with amblyopia or strabismus should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist.

• Cataracts are an important cause of amblyopia in children and require prompt intervention.

• Pediatric cataracts may be a sign of a metabolic disorder, TORCH infection (toxoplasmosis, other agents, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex), or chromosomal abnormality.

• Leukocoria warrants further investigation; significant causes include cataracts, Toxocara canis infection, retinal disease, and retinoblastoma.

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