Phosphorus

The usual serum phosphorus level is approximately 2.5 to 4.8 mg/dL in adults and 4.0 to 6.0 mg/dL in children. Disorders of phosphorus metabolism are caused by variations in dietary intake, phosphorus excretion, and transcellular shifts. Because postprandial phosphorylation of glucose can decrease serum phosphorus levels, fasting specimens are more accurate. Hyperphosphatemia most often occurs in the setting of reduced renal excretion from renal insufficiency. Other causes of hyperphosphatemia include excess phosphate ingestion, either orally or with phosphate-containing enemas, hypoparathyroidism, and spurious causes such as thrombocytosis. Less common causes include acromegaly, hyperthyroidism, acidosis, and massive cell lysis from hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, and tumor lysis after chemotherapy.

Hypophosphatemia is defined as a serum phosphorus level below 2.5 mg/dL. Clinically significant hypophosphatemia occurs at levels less than 1.5 mg/dL. The three major mechanisms associated with hypophosphatemia are decreased intestinal absorption, increased phosphate loss from the kidney, and increased phosphorus shift into the bones. Decreased absorption occurs most often with antacid use. Persistent hypophosphatemia most frequently results from disorders causing increased phosphate loss in the kidney, including hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular disease, and chronic acidosis. Intracellular shifts into cells and bones,

Hypermagnesemia

Overingestion (usually in setting of renal insufficiency)

Antacids

Cathartics

Laxatives

Renal insufficiency

Addison's disease

Hypothyroidism

Lithium intoxication

Hypomagnesemia

Gastrointestinal causes

Low-magnesium diet

Malabsorption

Diarrhea

Renal tubular disorders

Ketoacidosis

Alcohol abuse

Drugs

Diuretics

Digitalis

Cyclosporine

Cisplatin

Aminoglycosides

Carbenicillin

Amphotericin B

during acute respiratory alkalosis, hyperalimentation, intravenous carbohydrate administration, rapid tumor growth, or treatment of respiratory failure or diabetic ketoacidosis, can cause hypophosphatemia.

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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