Pregnant Women

All pregnant women must be routinely screened for HIV infection. Patients must be notified and then screened for HIV unless they decline (opt-out screening).

Separate written consent for HIV testing should not be required if the patient has already signed a general consent for medical care. Repeat screening in the third trimester is recommended in certain jurisdictions with elevated rates of HIV infection among pregnant women.

Modified from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents and pregnant women in healthcare settings. MMWR 2006;55(RR-14):1-17.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved four rapid HIV screening tests: Oraquick (and Oraquick Advance), Reveal (and Reveal G2), Uni-Gold Recombigen HIV1/HIV2 Rapid Test, and Multispot HIV1/HIV2 Rapid Test. Oraquick and Multispot can detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2. If HIV antibodies are present, they bind to the HIV antigens affixed to the test strip membrane. This complex in turn binds to the colorimetric agent of the test kit and can be seen for a positive test. All these tests require confirmation if reactive. They are highly sensitive and specific, are interpreted visually, and require no instrumentation, making them highly convenient for office use. Oraquick and Uni-Gold are CLIA waived.

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