The USPSTF recommends that clinicians routinely screen all sexually active women age 24 or younger (including pregnant women) and older asymptomatic women at increased risk for chlamydial infection. They recommend against routine screening in asymptomatic women age 25 and older (including pregnant women) who are not at increased risk. Although USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening of men, they counsel clinicians and health care systems to focus on improving screening rates among women at increased risk, a group for whom the benefits of screening are certain (USPSTF, 2007).

The AAFP (2009) concurs with USPSTF. The CDC (2006) recommends annual screening for sexually active women 25 years old and younger and older women with new or multiple sexual partners.

Women with asymptomatic untreated chlamydial infection have high rates of morbidity from PID and its sequelae. Screening tests can accurately detect chlamydial infection in those at risk, and treatment is effective. All sexually active women age 24 and younger and all older women at increased risk for PID should be screened for chlamydial infection. The same risk factors and recommendation applies to pregnant women (USPSTF, 2007).

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