The USPSTF strongly recommends that clinicians screen for HIV in all adolescents and adults at increased risk for HIV infection. They make no recommendation for or against routinely screening for HIV in adolescents and adults who are not at increased risk for HIV infection (USPSTF, 2005).

Counseling and HIV testing of high-risk individuals are recommended by the CDC and numerous professional organizations, including the AAFP, AMA, ACOG, ACP, and IDSA. The AAP considers all sexually active adolescents to be a high-risk group and recommends they be counseled and offered HIV testing. The CDC recommends that routine, voluntary testing be offered to all patients seen in health care facilities where the prevalence of HIV infection is 1% or greater and in settings serving client populations at increased behavioral or clinical HIV risk (Chou et al., 2005).

Standard and FDA-approved rapid screening tests accurately detect HIV infection, and interventions (e.g., HAART) reduce the risk of clinical progression and premature death. HIV screening should be offered to all adolescents and adults at high risk for HIV infection (USPSTF, 2005).

The following topics are discussed online at

• Syphilis infection

• Recommendations against routine screening for hepatitis B, C, and herpesvirus infections.

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