Renal Cancers

Renal cancers are twice as common in men as in women; more than 57,000 cases are diagnosed annually in men (ACS, 2010). Risk factors are less well understood than for other urologic cancers. Heavy tobacco use (>20 packs/year) is a risk factor in men, and severe obesity is a risk in both genders. Risks from occupational or medication exposure are less certain (Dhote et al., 2004).

Diagnosis of renal cancer is often incidental to an imaging study (e.g., ultrasound) obtained for another reason. Hema-turia is also a clinical sign that may lead to the diagnosis. Although renal cell cancers are curable if localized (88%-100%), overall survival rates (40%-60% at 5 years) are not as encouraging as in other urologic cancers (Dhote et al., 2004; NCI, 2009d).

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